Smart ev charging solutions. PO Series HMI Panel PC

Smart EV Charging: A Global Review of Promising Practices

The electrification of transport in Europe is in the early stages of a market transformation that has the potential to significantly cut emissions in both the transportation and energy sectors, while generating wider benefits for society. The research underpinning this study finds that the greatest value from integrating electric vehicles (EVs) into the power grid can be generated by charging them when and where it is most beneficial for the power system, while ensuring consumers’ mobility needs are met at an affordable cost. An emerging body of research on electric vehicle grid integration focuses on modeling the cost of integration under various scenarios, but few studies look at the existing promising practices that are based on policy tools in use today. The authors of this study conducted a qualitative review of policies for EV grid integration in the EU and U.S. markets. We found that, in order to unlock the environmental and economic opportunities associated with market uptake, three policy strategies are most effective: cost-reflective pricing, intelligent technology, and integrated infrastructure planning. The study also explores the implications of these practices for policymakers and regulators in the EU (A short version of this paper was presented at the 32nd Electric Vehicles Symposium in Lyon, France, in May 2019).


The number of electric vehicles (EVs) in Europe has increased exponentially. than one million electric passenger vehicles were on the roads of EU, European Free Trade Association countries, and Turkey by the end of 2018 [1]. It is agreed that “the benefits of transport electrification on climate change mitigation will be greater if EV deployment takes place in parallel with the decarbonisation of power systems” [2]. However, decision-makers on the European, national, and local levels are only starting to recognize the importance of managed or “Smart” charging as a key element for the environmentally beneficial and cost-efficient integration of electric vehicles into the grid [3,4]. This article builds on earlier research conducted by the authors [5], and on a global review of promising practices for beneficial EV grid integration [6] in a dynamically developing market for charging and grid services. It offers insights for decision-makers and identifies further needs for research.

With the term “EVs,” we include both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). For the sake of simplicity, we use the term EVs throughout. This article mainly focuses on passenger cars but also takes other vehicle segments into account. References to beneficial electrification of transport define “beneficial” as an electrified end use, or integration of an electrified end use, into the power grid that satisfies at least one of the following conditions without adversely affecting the other two: it saves consumers money over the long run, enables better grid management, and reduces detrimental environmental impacts.

EVs’ flexibility also makes them a grid resource with considerable advantages: As “batteries on wheels,” they can either pull electricity from the grid for charging or feed it back into the system whenever the vehicle is not in use. In the current phase of the mobility transition [7], which still focuses on private ownership of cars, vehicles are idle about 95 percent of the time, and users generally need only 10 percent of the hours in a day for charging [8]. This leaves at least 85 percent of the time free for potentially providing flexibility services, and EVs are increasingly recognized, also by utilities, as a valuable demand-response resource for the grid [9]. But as the mobility paradigm transitions, we will see growth in vehicle use through increasingly intelligent and shared new mobility services [10,11,12,13]. Some flexibility for optimizing the way users charge their vehicles is likely to remain, along with strong incentives to minimize the cost of charging.

Previous research highlights the benefits of strategic EV integration, stating that “Smart EV charging can integrate increasing amounts of renewable energy resources, increase utilization of the existing network infrastructure, lower the operating cost of EVs, and minimize the need for new investment” [5]. Subsequently, there is a growing body of literature that assesses EV grid integration costs and the associated benefits [14,15,16,17]. Studies undertaken for and by stakeholders and other researchers broadly agree that the grid can cope with integrating the anticipated growth in electric vehicles without issue, provided charging is managed [18]. This means that users are provided with incentives to move their vehicle charging to off-peak hours, thus using the existing grid assets more efficiently. According to the European Association of the Electricity Industry (Eurelectric), Smart charging could result in improved grid utilization rates. The association also finds that any higher overall electricity peaks would not be substantial and therefore are not cause for concern [18]. Grid operators note that it is, of course, possible that grid expansion could be necessary in given locations [19]. A recent analysis of Europe’s largest car market, Germany, confirms these findings even if high levels of electrification are assumed, provided that the broader transition to a more efficient, less vehicle-based transport sector continues [20]. Previous estimations based on data from France and Germany show that a significant proportion of existing distribution network grid capacity remains unused that is well suited for charging a higher penetration of EVs with little or no need for additional capacity [21]. The studies also show that, without managed charging, the costs of providing the power needed to charge rising numbers of EVs could grow dramatically [18]. If the vehicles are charged during times of system peak, the overall peak could even increase twofold [19]. This could lead to substantial, and avoidable, investment in new generation resources and grid capacity that has limited value, as it would only serve the higher peak.

The authors of this article explored best practices for ensuring that charging is managed and unnecessary investment costs can be avoided. While the majority of current research uses a modeling approach to address this question [22], few studies have explored existing market and policy practices that already successfully illustrate the benefits of Smart charging. We seek to make an empirical contribution to the current debate by presenting case studies of real-world examples. As a result of our research, we have identified three particularly important opportunities for ensuring EVs are integrated beneficially into the grid, and costly exacerbation of peak load is avoided.

Materials and Methods

Research for this study focused on a qualitative method of data collection (See Supplementary Materials) with the objective of establishing a comprehensive definition of and recommendations to promote “Smart charging,” a term often used in policy discussions but seldom clarified, through real-world case studies [23]. The research process involved collection, review, and documentation of reports and material available in European Member States and the United States, as well as interviews with various stakeholders (see Appendix A, Table A1). In addition, the authors gathered information in various informal exchanges, such as expert workshops, and incorporated the feedback from external experts (see Acknowledgements). The research was conducted between June 2018 and March 2019.

In this section, we identify three areas of opportunity for beneficial EV integration through “Smart charging” and discuss selected examples of best practices. For the purposes of this paper, we define “Smart charging” as electric vehicle charging that can be shifted to times “when the costs for producing and delivering electricity are lower, without compromising the vehicle owner’s needs” [4].

3.1. Smart Pricing

Cost-reflective, or “Smart” pricing, sends price signals to consumers about the actual cost of generating and delivering electricity at a given time. The objective of this mechanism is to reward customers with lower when they shift their vehicle charging to times that are beneficial to the grid, i.e., times of low demand or load. Well-designed tariffs ensure efficient use of existing power system infrastructure and can help obviate the need for some future investments in the system [24]. The cost savings from Smart pricing do not only accrue for EV users; all customers reap the benefits of the lower system costs.

At present, the most common type of pricing across Europe is the standard tariff, which is a rate that does not vary with time. Standard pricing is based on a flat, per kilowatt-hour charge for consumers’ electricity demand. Because customers cannot lower their electricity bills by shifting their power use, they charge their vehicles at a desired time, regardless of grid conditions and regardless of the cost to generate and deliver electricity.

Utilities across most of Europe offer their customers forms of time-varying price structures, but the uptake by consumers has been low on the whole. Pilot programs, featuring Smart pricing, show that those consumers who do participate are responsive to price signals and willing to change their charging behaviors. The current pricing models range from the simplest, time-of-use (TOU) tariffs, to the most complex, real-time pricing. With time-of-use pricing, the utility sets different for different blocks of time. These are usually simple delineations, such as a day and night tariff or a weekday and weekend price, and the tariffs are typically based on consumers’ past power usage. This most prevalent design, dating back to the 1970s and 1980s, does not require advanced metering technology. Its effectiveness varies greatly among countries, depending on the design and the ratio between the highest and lowest price periods. The difference between the two rates needs to be large enough to encourage customers to change their behavior.

Real-time pricing, by contrast, changes according to the actual situation on the power grid over set intervals and thus requires Smart metering. Smart meter rollout has been a challenging hurdle, with several Member States still far behind their target.

Two other designs of note are critical peak pricing and peak-time rebates. France is currently the only country offering critical peak pricing [25], where rise substantially for a limited number of hours, and this time frame is announced in advance. As the name suggests, a peak-time rebate plan pays a set amount to consumers who shift their electricity consumption away from peak hours. If they do use power during this time, the price is the same as for non-peak hours.

Electricity tariffs that support managed EV charging require consumers to learn how to best use them to save money (and, at the same time, to create grid benefits). Customer education is key, in particular to attract new user groups, who are not already convinced of the specific advantages of electric vehicles. Experience from the United States confirms that many energy suppliers reported positive experiences when testing the introduction of time-varying tariffs in smaller pilot projects [26].

Cost-reflective pricing takes on vital importance as the EV market transformation accelerates. With today’s low EV market share and a moderate, albeit growing, share of renewables, simpler tariff designs such as TOU rates can ensure beneficial EV grid integration. This will not be sufficient, however, in a fully developed electric transport sector that also aims to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy. In this case, more granular tariff designs, supported by technology (see below), will be required to ensure grid-friendly EV charging.


The review of promising examples has shown that, in various EU countries, existing policy tools for tariff design, technology deployment and integrated planning can be used to enhance beneficial EV grid integration. Three primary conclusions can be drawn from the analysis and can inform European policymakers, as outlined below. They are also part of a broader scholarly and regulatory discussion on how to leverage electric vehicles as decentralized energy resources [49] in the overall power sector transformation [50].

4.1. Time-Varying Electricity Pricing Can Motivate Electric Vehicle Drivers to Charge at Times that are Advantageous for the Power System

Several provisions of the EU electricity sector reform that was concluded at the end of 2018, the so-called “Clean Energy for All Europeans” package, recognize that time-varying pricing can accelerate the integration of electric vehicles into the grid. It remains to be seen, however, how ambitiously Member States will implement the legislation. Our analysis underscores two crucial requirements for creating a suitable framework for dynamic pricing, with two objectives. First, it is critical that real-time energy are based on the full value of flexibility on the customer side, or the demand side. Second, electric vehicle users should be subject to fair retail tariffs for energy charges and network fees. In other words, all users should reap the benefits of Smart charging and, in equal measure, should bear their rightful share of the costs for uncontrolled charging. When implementing the rules, EU countries are required to prepare a foundation for more dynamic pricing structures that support Smart charging by capturing and communicating to EV customers the cost of producing electricity. Future research will be needed to closely monitor tariff designs for EV uptake, to learn from consumer experiences with tariffs, and to make data from these lessons publicly available. This is being practiced to a larger extent in some U.S. states, where regulators require energy suppliers to respond to the EV grid integration challenge through tariff design, infrastructure investments, and similar methods [51].

4.2. Leveraging Smart Pricing with Responsive Technology Generates Substantial Benefits

Policymakers can capitalize on the opportunity to maximize the benefits of time-varying pricing by ensuring responsive technology is broadly available to consumers. In this transition phase, Member State governments can help build a more dynamic market for charging solutions by taking an ambitious approach to translating the provisions of the Clean Energy for All Europeans package [52], by complying with existing legislations on Smart meter rollout thoroughly and swiftly, and by revising standardization requirements to ensure broad distribution of market solutions. Research shows that granular data, for example from Smart meters, is pivotal for integrating demand-side flexibility into the grid, such as that provided by electric vehicles [53]. The UK [54], for example, is considering whether it should require all new, non-public EV charging infrastructure to have the ability to react to price signals.

4.3. Grid-Friendly Charging Infrastructure is Key to Minimising Costs

Beneficial EV integration is dependent on strategically located, grid-friendly charging infrastructure that determines where, when and how EVs can be charged. This still presents a major hurdle for EV market take-up at the time this article was written. Elaborate models have been developed to assess use patterns for charging infrastructure. For example, researchers have identified load allocation strategies to support revenue calculation [55]. A body of research has also emerged around modeling the density requirements for charging infrastructure [56,57] and analyzing users’ behavior at fast charging stations in cities [58] to inform planners. The findings highlight the gap between planned infrastructure rollout and future user needs [59], as well as the importance of appropriate planning. Specifically, more data and knowledge is needed to assess the long-term costs and benefits associated with infrastructure build-out such as location, installation, operation, and long-term maintenance, as well as a discussion of successful models for charging infrastructure ownership and the regulatory changes needed to realize them.

Policymakers are tasked with the challenge of developing public charging infrastructure in a range of circumstances: urban areas, along highways, and in rural settings. The common denominator is the existing energy and transport infrastructure, which should be considered together. The EU institutions will evaluate the Alternative Fuels Directive [60], which is the existing legal framework underpinning charging infrastructure development. In order to ensure we can meet future charging needs for different groups of EV users, it will be important to implement an integrated approach to energy and transport planning in this review. The implementation of the revised European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive [61], as part of the Clean Energy for All Europeans package, presents an opportunity to revisit building codes with a view toward facilitating vehicle charging at workplace and residential settings, including multifamily homes. It is also crucial to direct infrastructure funding in a way that bolsters the development of a competitive market for EV charging services. Municipalities can support this, for example, by including performance indicators in public tenders.

Electric car sales reached a record 3 million in 2020, up 40% from 2019. This strong growth was a stark contrast to general car market sluggishness globally, with overall car sales down 16% due to the COVID-19 crisis. After a decade of Rapid growth, there are now over 10 million electric cars on the road, representing ~1% of the global car stock. For 2030, the Net Zero Emissions by 2050 Scenario projects 300 million electric cars on the road and they account for over 60% of new car sales, compared with only 4.6% in 2020.

Winmate has technology know-how for the production and development of explosion-proof devices.

  • Strong vibrationDevices are ideal for public charging, shopping centres, rental companies, vehicle fleets, company car parks, etc. are subject to strong vibrations.
  • Operating in cold environmentsDepending on the season, the outside temperature can fall to up to.40°C.
  • Unstable power supplyEquipment deployed in the train cabin must have a solution to protect the device from an unstable power supply, power loss, or power surge.
  • Wireless communicationsWireless technologies connect all the devices and sensors in the train.
  • Extreme operating environmentEquipment should provide advanced system monitoring even in the most challenging conditions: potential explosive atmospheres, varying temperature, explosion to water, and rain.


Winmate, a rugged computing and embedded solutions provider for industries operating in some of the most challenging environments, is extending the portfolio of its proven industrial HMI panel PC series. Winmate’s industrial Panel PCs featuring a new Gen. Intel® processor are now available as GC Series for use in heavy-duty industrial environments, as PO Series for embedded kiosks, and as Standard Industrial Panel PC (Chassis/ Open Frame/ Front IP65 / Panel Mount) for various industrial application scenarios. All new versions are available immediately.

Winmate continues pursuing excellence and innovation in system design. To fulfill the diverse needs of customers and the EV market demand, Winmate partners with leading EV charging solution suppliers to develop IoT-based EV charging solutions with IP65 ratings that are modern, ergonomic, and customizable for outdoor environments. Besides using the high-brightness Smart touch computer for a better user experience, the charging pile could fit well with all European, Japanese, and National standard EVs thus supporting precise power supply control and cut-off to avoid damages by accident caused by abnormal weather or grid.

Understanding Human-Machine Interaction (HMI)

Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) refers to the field of study and practice that focuses on the design, development, and evaluation of interfaces between humans and machines. It encompasses various technologies and methodologies aimed at facilitating efficient and intuitive interaction between humans and computer systems. HMI plays a crucial role in enabling seamless communication, control, and collaboration between individuals and machines across a wide range of applications and industries. In this article, we will explore the concept of HMI in detail, its importance, and its applications in different domains.

Evolution of HMI

The concept of HMI has evolved significantly over the years, driven by advancements in technology and the need for more user-friendly interfaces. In the early days of computing, interactions with machines were primarily through punch cards and command-line interfaces, which were complex and required specialized knowledge. However, with the advent of graphical user interfaces (GUIs), HMI took a major leap forward, making computers more accessible to a broader range of users. GUIs introduced visual elements, icons, menus, and Windows, enabling users to interact with machines through familiar metaphors and intuitive interactions.

Importance of HMI

HMI plays a vital role in ensuring effective communication and collaboration between humans and machines. It aims to reduce the cognitive load on users, enhance usability, and improve overall user experience. Here are some key reasons why HMI is crucial:

  • User-Friendly Interfaces:HMI focuses on designing interfaces that are intuitive, easy to learn, and navigate. By considering user needs, preferences, and mental models, HMI professionals create interfaces that enable users to interact with machines effortlessly.
  • Efficiency and Productivity:Well-designed HMIs can significantly enhance efficiency and productivity by streamlining complex tasks, automating repetitive actions, and providing relevant information in a clear and concise manner. By minimizing cognitive effort and reducing errors, HMIs help users perform tasks more effectively and with fewer obstacles.
  • Safety and Reliability:In critical domains such as aviation, healthcare, and manufacturing, HMI plays a vital role in ensuring safety and reliability. Clear and intuitive interfaces, along with effective feedback mechanisms, help users make informed decisions and respond promptly to critical situations.
  • Accessibility and Inclusivity:HMI considers the diverse needs of users, including those with disabilities or special requirements. By incorporating accessibility features such as screen readers, voice recognition, and adaptive interfaces, HMIs promote inclusivity and provide equal access to technology for all users.

Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) plays a vital role in bridging the gap between humans and machines, enabling seamless communication and collaboration. Through user-friendly interfaces, efficient workflows, and thoughtful design, HMI enhances usability, productivity, and user satisfaction across various domains. As technology continues to advance, the importance of HMI will only grow, as it becomes increasingly critical to ensure that machines are accessible, intuitive, and adaptable to human needs. By prioritizing HMI in the design and development of interfaces, we can create a future where humans and machines interact effortlessly, leading to improved experiences and increased efficiency in our daily lives.

G-WIN GC Series HMI Panel PC

The GC Series version is specifically designed for heavy-duty applications for those looking for rugged construction. The rear cover is made from aluminum and features IP65 water and dust protection, suitable for industrial applications and machine control. The display comes with PCAP touchscreen. The displays are available in display sizes of 21.5 and 23.8 inches.

Want to Learn About OCPP?

Discover how OCPP eases communication of charging station networks and its potential for energy management and grid integration in our report, What is OCPP and How to Use It for Smart Charging.

Ampcontrol connects to Revel’s 25 DC fast chargers and manages all of their charging operations. With Ampcontrol, Revel has reduced 45% of its energy costs, ensured a 99.999% uptime, and reduced manual operations on site.

EV charging station management software

Manage all your EV chargers and vehicles from one system

Ampcontrol’s flexible system allows you to connect to any OCPP charge point, various vehicle telematics, and other systems such as energy meters and utility signals. Ampcontrol’s UI makes it easy to navigate and stay up to date on all charging operations.‍

Reduce Total Cost of Ownership

Ampcontrol’s system reduces costs, from the installation of charging infrastructure to the optimization of energy consumption and charging operations. Ampcontrol’s simulation tool helps plan new charging sites as well as upgrades.‍

Ensure the High-Uptime of EV Charger Operations

Ampcontrol’s system has a 99.999% uptime, providing you with the most reliable software solution for your EV chargers. Ampcontrol has implemented and proved various backup functionalities to always ensure the availability of your EV charge points.‍

Manage all your EV chargers and vehicles from one system

Ampcontrol’s flexible system allows you to connect to any OCPP charge point, various vehicle telematics, and other systems such as energy meters and utility signals. Ampcontrol’s UI makes it easy to navigate and stay up to date on all charging operations.

Reduce Total Cost of Ownership

Ampcontrol’s system reduces costs, from the installation of charging infrastructure to the optimization of energy consumption and charging operations. Ampcontrol’s simulation tool helps plan new charging sites as well as upgrades.

Ensure the High-Uptime of EV Charger Operations

Ampcontrol’s system has a 99.999% uptime, providing you with the most reliable software solution for your EV chargers. Ampcontrol has implemented and proved various backup functionalities to always ensure the availability of your EV charge points.

EV charging is made easy and reliable with Ampcontrol. Our software always keeps you informed, and allows you to visualize all of your operations.

Talk about your case with one of our EV experts.

What is an EV charging station management software?

An EV Charging Station Management Software (CMS) is used by fleet operators, charging operators, and others, to monitor and optimize electric vehicle charging operations. It is important for the CMS to be reliable, scalable, and easy to connect to existing systems.

By directly connecting to EV chargers, a CMS is able to not only keep track of charging activities but also manage the network’s power consumption. It can also modify charger behavior, within parameters, to reach certain targets.‍Learn more

What are the benefits of using an EV charging station management software?

Ampcontrol’s software system specializes in optimization algorithms that help users to ensure a reliable and efficient charging operation. We currently provide our fleet customers with various benefits, including dynamic load sharing, energy cost optimization, vehicle schedule integrations, DR and V2G events, building load optimization, and solar energy optimization.

Our software combines different optimization targets and applies multi-objective algorithms to approach the different customer needs.

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How does an EV charging station management software and Smart charging work?

Ampcontrol’s energy management capabilities allows customers to manage the charger’s power consumption, as well as the site’s power. With Smart Charging, users can optimize site operations and also receive utility signals for demand response (DR events) or vehicle-to-grid (V2G events), as well as respond to variable energy prices, such as TOU rates or Spot Pricing.

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What is a Smart EV Charger How Do They Work?

Like standard Level 2 electric vehicle (EV) chargers, Smart chargers supply electrical power which is used to power up EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Where the two charger types differ is in functionality, as traditional chargers typically do not connect to Wi-Fi and are not as feature-rich.

Understanding the basic capabilities of different EV charger types will help identify the right charging solution for your home, providing you with convenience and access to the charging attributes you want. Follow this simple guide to learn more about what a Smart EV charger is, how you might be best-served using one, and how you can start the installation process.

How Do Smart EV Chargers Work?

Compared to standard electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) chargers, Level 2 EV chargers are equipped with Smart technology that offers homeowners convenience and more functionality to gain greater control over their EV charging experiences. Essentially, Smart chargers allow for access to a host of features making it so you charge your EV when you want, from where you want. Otherwise, Smart chargers work similarly to other Level 2 systems, charging EVs up to 8x faster than Level 1 chargers, which come standard with most new EV purchases.

Optimizing energy consumption to save money is the primary reason to get a Smart EV charger. The added convenience is another great perk, since Smart chargers can be remotely operated through an app or web portal, and charging can be scheduled for a time that works for you. While it’s not critical to purchase a Smart charger, the added features make it easier for you to save money over time. Knowing that, why wouldn’t you pay a little more upfront to save a lot over an extended period?

Can I Install an EV Charger at Home Myself?

In some instances, you can install a Smart charger at home. But depending on your home setup, it’s often best to hire a certified electrician to install your new charger. Regardless of who installs your charger, you will need to power your system from a 240v dedicated circuit, which could be through an outlet or hardwire — so keep that in mind when determining where you want your charging setup in your garage or elsewhere on your property.

Yes, Smart EV chargers need to be connected to Wi-Fi to unlock their full benefits. Many Smart chargers can also be used as simple plug-and-use systems, but you won’t have access to any of their robust features without connecting them to a network.

EvoCharge’s iEVSE Home Smart EV Charger can be controlled with the EvoCharge App or by accessing the web portal. An easy-to-use Level 2 charger intended for home use, the iEVSE Home connects to a 2.4Ghz Wi-Fi network, and includes technology that allows you to schedule charging times, which allows you to save money by charging your EV during off-peak hours.

The web portal is also a great addition to EvoCharge’s Smart home charger, granting access to a dashboard that provides users with high-level viewing of charging session and usage data. The web portal offers all the same convenient features as the EvoCharge app, but it also gives the ability to download charging session data via CSV files, and you get access to a sustainability webpage that gives insights into your charging and its impact on the environment.

How Much Does a Smart Charger Cost?

Since Smart chargers include more technology and features than basic chargers, this means they also cost more. Level 2 Smart chargers generally start around 700 and go up to 450,000 in price for the hardware, plus any accessories you may want to add to your setup. EvoCharge’s iEVSE Home starts at 679 and can be purchased through installments. Overall, Smart chargers typically cost a couple hundred dollars more than alternative systems, however they give users the ability to save a lot of money over time since they offer so much control over the charging experience.

Enjoy convenient and efficient Smart charging from anywhere

If you get the EvoCharge iEVSE Home and want installation help, we recommend using a certified electrician who is already familiar with EvoCharge products. Check to see if a Certified EvoCharge Installer is available in your area. If you have questions about the iEVSE Home or other charging equipment, contact us or view our FAQs.

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