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Silver Oxide Battery Market Analysis

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Press Release

Silver oxide battery consists of silver oxide as positive electrode and zinc as negative electrode. It contains potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide as electrolyte. Silver oxide battery is widely used across globe, owing to its durability and high energy weight ratio.

Global silver oxide battery market was valued at US 18.3 Billion in 2022, exhibiting a CAGR of 4.34% during the forecast period (2023 to 2030).

Global Silver Oxide Battery Market- Drivers

Growing demand for silver oxide battery in various electronic appliances

Silver oxide battery are used broadly due to its high energy weight ratio and durability. It is usually used as scaled down power source. Button silver oxide batteries are generally used in calculators, watches, toys, photo- electric exposure gadgets, and hearing aids. Batteries, big in size, are used in submarines, rockets, aviation, and underwater applications. Button silver oxide batteries are used in computerized and simple watches, and this is expected to boost demand for silver oxide battery in the global market.

These batteries are used as miniature power source. Big batteries are used in missiles, submarines, aerospace, and underwater applications. Silver oxide battery has advantages such as high capacity, low shelf discharge, and long shelf-life, and this is a major factor in driving growth of the global silver oxide battery market.

Figure 1. Global Silver Oxide Battery Market Value Share (%), By Region, 2022

Global Silver Oxide Battery Market- Restraints

High cost of silver in the silver oxide battery is a major factor that is negatively affecting growth of the global silver oxide battery market.

Silver Oxide Battery Market Report Coverage

  • North America: U.S., Canada
  • South America: Brazil, Argentina and Rest of South America
  • Europe: Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, and Rest of Europe
  • Asia Pacific: China, India, Japan, Australia, South Korea, ASEAN, and Rest of Asia Pacific
  • Middle East: GCC Countries and Rest of Middle East
  • Africa: South Africa, North Africa, and Central Africa
  • By Application: Toys, Medical Equipment, Electronics, Others (Defense and Aerospace, etc.)

Panasonic Corporation, Energizer Holdings, Maxwell Technologies Inc., Seiko Instruments Inc., Berkshire Hathaway Inc., Sony Corporation, Toshiba Corporation, Renata SA, Camelion Battery, and Varta AG.

Global Silver Oxide Battery Market- Trends

Silver oxide battery benefits include flatter curve of discharge battery, increased operating voltage, shock resistant, resistance to vibration, availability of various size and voltages, and this are the key driving factors for development of the global silver oxide battery market. Increasing popularity of electronic wearables is expected to boost development of the silver oxide battery market.

Small button silver oxide battery has application in digital and analog watches, calculators, toys, and portable electronics, and this is propelling growth of the global silver oxide battery market. Furthermore, large customized silver oxide batteries are used in aerospace applications and military applications such as missiles, submarines, and torpedoes, and this is also expected to support growth of the silver oxide battery market.

Figure 2. Global Silver Oxide Battery Market Value Share (%), By Application, 2022

Regional Analysis

North America held significant market share in the global silver oxide market in 2022. The U.S. was a major contributor to market growth in this region. This is owing to increasing FOCUS of key players in the region on development of new products.

Global Silver Oxide Battery Market- Impact of Coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic

Outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 had a negative significant impact on the growth of global silver oxide battery market, owing to decreased usage of toys, medical equipment and electronics during pandemic, and this negatively affected global silver oxide battery market.

Battery Technologies

There are a multitude of different battery technologies available. There are some really great resources available for the nitty gritty details behind battery chemistries. Wikipedia is especially good and all encompassing. This tutorial focuses on the most often used batteries for embedded systems and DIY electronics.

Suggested Reading

There are some concepts and bits of knowledge you may want to know before reading this tutorial:

What is Electricity?

We can see electricity in action on our computers, lighting our houses, as lightning strikes in thunderstorms, but what is it? This is not an easy question, but this tutorial will shed some light on it!

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Alternating Current (AC) vs. Direct Current (DC)

Learn the differences between AC and DC, the history, different ways to generate AC and DC, and examples of applications.

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Here are some terms often used when talking about batteries.

Capacity. Batteries have different ratings for the amount of power a given battery can store. When a battery is fully charged, the capacity is the amount of power it contains. Batteries of the same type will often be rated by the amount of current they can output over time. For example, there are 1000mAh (milli-Amp Hour) and 2000mAh batteries.

Nominal Cell Voltage. The average voltage a cell outputs when charged. The nominal voltage of a battery depends on the chemical reaction behind it. A lead-acid car battery will output 12V. A lithium coin cell battery will output 3V.

The key word here is nominal, the actual measured voltage on a battery will decrease as it discharges. A fully charged LiPo battery will produce about 4.23V, while when discharged its voltage may be closer to 2.7V.

Shape. Batteries come in many sizes and shapes. The term ‘AA’ references a specific shape and style of a cell. There are a large variety.

Primary vs. Secondary. Primary batteries are synonymous with disposable. Once fully-drained, primary cells can’t be recharged (reliably/safely). Secondary batteries are better known as rechargeable. These require another power source to fully charge back up, but they can fully charge/discharge many times over their life. In general primary batteries have a lower discharge rate, so they’ll last longer, but they can be less economical than rechargeable batteries.

Energy Density. Combining capacity with shape and size of a battery, the energy density of a battery can be calculated. Different technologies allow different densities. For example, lithium batteries typically pack more juice into a given volume than alkaline or coin cell batteries.

Internal Discharge Rate. Have you ever tried to start a car that has been sitting for 6 months? Batteries discharge when sitting on the shelf or when unused. The rate at which the battery discharges itself over time is called internal discharge rate.

Safety. Because batteries store power, they are basically very tiny explosives. To prevent harm, batteries are designed to be as safe as possible. Most batteries technologies are designed to discharge safely in the event of misuse. If you hook up an alkaline battery incorrectly, it may get hot to the touch but should not catch fire. Most Lithium Polymer batteries have safety circuits built-in to prevent damage to battery and prevent it from unsafe usage.

For a full list of terms and technical overview Wikipedia is an [excellent resource](

Secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries) are more powerful and durable than primary cells. In addition, they can be recharged, making them ideal for powering high-efficiency equipment like laptops, smartphones and electric cars.

Secondary batteries also reduce the negative impact of cells on the environment since they produce less waste than primary batteries.

The main types of rechargeable batteries you can find on today’s market include:

  • Lithium-ion
  • Nickel-cadmium (NiCd)
  • Nickel metal hydride (NiMH)
  • Lead-acid gel

Lithium-Ion Battery

Lithium-ion, or Li-ion batteries, are used in many devices today and provide good performance, charge faster and last longer than other battery types.

They’re made of ultra-breathable carbon and lithium, making them lightweight.

Li-ion batteries also have a high energy density, allowing them to store a significant amount of power for hours of use. However, they usually require a specific charger, and you can rarely interchange them with other devices.

The table below summarises the benefits and drawbacks of Li-ion batteries:

Nickel-Cadmium Battery (NiCd)

Metallic cadmium and nickel oxide hydride are used as electrodes in NiCd batteries. They come in wet, sealed and ventilated cell forms.

The wet cell type has a high self-discharge rate, so it’s not suitable for most devices.

Sealed NiCd batteries are used in a variety of applications, including:

  • Emergency and solar lighting
  • Flashlights
  • Photography equipment
  • Portable electronic devices
  • Portable power tools

Larger ventilated cells, on the other hand, are used in:

  • Emergency and solar lighting
  • Uninterruptible power supplies
  • Standby power
  • Electric vehicles
  • Aircraft starting batteries

NiCd batteries have a powerful and consistent voltage output, meaning that if a NiCd battery powers a flashlight, the light will remain constant until the battery dies. However, if an alkaline battery powers the same flashlight, the light will dim as the battery power runs out.

NiCd batteries also charge quickly, but their energy capacity can diminish over time if you don’t fully discharge them before recharging.

The table below summarises the advantages and disadvantages of NiCd batteries:

Nickel Metal Hydride Battery (NiMH)

NiMH batteries are rechargeable batteries that have a nominal voltage of 1.2 V. Their energy density is almost the same as a lithium-ion battery, while their capacity triples that of a NiCd battery.

NiMH batteries operate at full capacity until nearly all energy has been discharged, making them ideal for flashlights, cameras and other high-power devices.

However, they can only be recharged about 500 times, and overcharging them can diminish their energy capacity.

The table below summarises the pros and cons of NiMH batteries:

Lead-Acid Gel Batter

Lead-acid gels are valve-regulated (VRLA) batteries with sulfuric acid and fumed silica electrolytes.

Lead-acid batteries are available in both sealed and unsealed designs.

If you have a sealed battery, you won’t have to fill it with water. The battery will require minimal maintenance. On the other hand, unsealed batteries need more care and must be refilled with water over time.

Gel electrolyte batteries are also more resistant to drying out, making them ideal for higher temperature environments.

You can use lead-acid batteries in:

  • Backup power
  • Car batteries
  • Wheelchairs and golf carts
  • Energy storage (for off-grid electronic power systems and solar systems)

That said, lead-acid is less durable than lithium and nickel-based batteries when used in deep cycling.

The reason is that a full discharge will cause more strain on lead-acid batteries than lithium or nickel-based batteries. That will eventually make a lead-acid battery lose its energy capacity, reducing its performance over time.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Which battery lasts the longest?

Lithium-ion batteries last the longest and have the highest capacity.

With a long shelf life, low self-discharge, and low cost, alkaline non-rechargeable batteries come in second.

What does 12 V mean?

12 V indicates that the battery supplies 12 volts under a nominal load. The same principle applies to a 24 V battery bank, which provides 24 volts.

Most car and RV batteries are 12 V.

How do I know if my battery is AGM?

An AGM battery always has a flat top with protruding negative and positive terminals.

On the other hand, liquid acid batteries have a removable top, which AGM batteries don’t have because they’re properly sealed.

Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries

Many consumers want to know why hearing aids do not use the lithium-ion batteries that are widely used in portable electronics like our cell phones and even some cochlear implants. While some hearing aid manufacturers are adopting lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries, the authors believe there remain some major challenges associated with them, including:

silver, zinc, battery, voltage, does
  • Safety. Lithium-ion batteries can be dangerous and even life-threatening if accidently swallowed. Battery ingestion fatalities and severe esophageal injuries have been associated with lithium-ion coin cell batteries. 5 Sharpe et al in 2012 stated that “If a lithium-ion button battery lodges in the esophagus, surrounding tissue injury can occur in just 2 hours.” 6 Although hearing aids powered by Lithium-ion are sealed to protect a patient if accidentally ingested, chewing on a Lithium-ion powered hearing aid by a pet, such as a dog or cat, could prove fatal to the animal.
  • Sealed case. Lithium-ion batteries must be sealed in a case, meaning they are not removable. In instances when the battery does not last the full day or users forget to charge them, the hearing aid user must go without their devices. It also means that, when the battery completes its life-span (generally about one year), it must be returned to the manufacturer for battery replacement.
  • Higher voltage. Lithium-ion’s output voltage of 3.6 V is well above the maximum limit of most hearing aid electronic circuits, which are designed to operate closer to 1.2-1.4 V. Although there could be positive developments associated with higher voltages, adopting this chemistry adds considerable size, cost, and redesign of the hearing aid architecture.
  • Insufficient energy and size limitations. To date, it has not been demonstrated that lithium-ion has the capacity to operate wireless streaming hearing aids a full day unless the hearing aid uses external streaming accessories that have their own power supply. Plus, lithium-ion typically is not scalable in size to small hearing aid battery sizes like 312 or 10.
  • Flammable. The contents of these batteries are highly flammable and explosive.
  • Disposal restriction. Due to their flammability and lack of recoverable materials, the batteries are problematic as waste materials. Since they are sealed into a case, they are not meant to be removed.

Silver-zinc Rechargeable Batteries

The newest advancement in rechargeable batteries is a commercial spinoff from NASA. The US space program used silver-zinc batteries, and NASA’s Spinoff magazine will soon highlight “NASA technologies that are benefiting life on Earth in the form of commercial products.” 7 Silver-zinc rechargeable battery chemistry is now in the commercial sector with a current FOCUS on rechargeable batteries for hearing aids.

Figure 3. Specific energy and energy density values for Nickel Cadmium (NiCD), Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), Lithium-ion (Li-ion), and Silver-Zinc (AgZn) battery chemistries. Adapted from data in Linden and Reddy’s Handbook of Batteries. 3

Silver-zinc batteries have the highest theoretical specific energy and energy density of all commercially available rechargeable battery technologies (Figure 3). These batteries utilize an aqueous (water-based) electrolyte, which reduces the flammability hazard often associated with some Li-ion batteries and are therefore safer for both the user and the environment.

Figure 3 shows a comparison of the published literature values for the silverzinc battery energy density and specific energy with respect to other commercial secondary battery chemistries. In the figure, it can be seen that silver-zinc batteries have the highest specific energy and energy density ranges when compared to the other rechargeable chemistry solutions available on the market, including Li-ion.

In recent years, improvements in battery technology have focused mainly on large-format batteries for motor vehicles and energy storage. At the opposite end of the size spectrum, relatively little attention has been placed on small and miniature batteries for electronics and medical applications.

Miniature batteries are where silver-zinc offers distinct advantages over every other rechargeable battery technology. As we know from experiences with our cell phones, rechargeable batteries (eg, lithium-ion) hold their charge for only a few months before users begin to notice shorter battery life and longer charge times. This is not atypical, as it is known that lithium-ion cells usually deliver the rated capacity for only the first few cycles (ie, charges), and then rapidly fall to between 90-85% within the first 100 cycles. Furthermore, the capacity of the Li-ion cells generally plateau between 85-80% of their advertised rated capacity before the 200th cycle. In comparison, the silver-zinc button cells developed for hearing aids and wearable devices maintain greater than 98% of their advertised rated capacity for over 300 cycles. This represents a significantly greater capacity density and cycle life performance over current rechargeable batteries. 8

Figure 4. Comparison of increases in artificial saliva pH from different batteries and chemistries. The larger the pH increase the greater the damage would be to an individual’s esophagus for someone who swallowed the battery. Li-ion’s higher voltage of 3.6 V results in greater damage faster, while the lower voltage of silver-zinc and zinc-air only moderately changes the pH. Lithium-ion cells would have done substantially more damage to human tissue than any of the other battery chemistries. From Ortega 2016. 9

Silver-zinc also has fewer safety risks than, for example, lithium-ion as noted above. Ortega 9 recently evaluated various batteries with an artificial saliva test in response to concerns about battery ingestion fatalities and esophageal injuries reportedly associated with lithium-ion coin cells. 5,6,10 Comparing different batteries and chemistries, they found lithium-ion to have the largest increase in artificial saliva pH (Figure 4). The larger the pH increase, the greater the damage would be to an individual’s esophagus for someone who swallowed the battery. Li-ion’s higher voltage of 3.6V results in greater damage faster, while the lower voltage of silver-zinc and zinc-air results in only moderate pH changes. They concluded that the lithium-ion cells would have done substantially more damage to human tissue than any of the other battery chemistries.

Deaths attributed to coin and button cell batteries has attracted the attention of groups such as the Consumer Product Safety Commission, IEC, WHO, and ANSI, and has prompted the industry to develop standards to improve battery ingestion safety through multiple approaches:

  • Warning language and symbols;
  • Education for parents and healthcare professionals;
  • Child-proof packaging, and
  • Battery compartment design.


  • Abrams HB, Kihm J. An introduction to MarkeTrak IX: A new baseline for the hearing aid market. Hearing Review. 2015;22(6):16. Available at:
  • Staab W. My battery doesn’t seem to last long. What could be happening? Hearing Health Matters. January 2016. Available at:
  • Freeman B, Powers T, Perez J. Battery life: Counseling patients about the power consumption of wireless streaming hearing aids. Presentation at: Annual Conference of the American Academy of Audiology, Phoenix;April 2016.
  • Linden D, Reddy T. Handbook of Batteries. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill;2010.
  • Poison Control National Capital Poison Center. Fatal button battery ingestions: 49 reported cases. 2016. Available at:
  • Sharpe S, Rochette L, Smith G. Pediatric battery-related emergency department visits in the United States, 1990-2009. Pediatrics. 2012;129(6):1111-1117.
  • Dueber R. Rechargeable hearing aid batteries draw from NASA research. Spinoff Magazine. 2016; In press.
  • Ortega J, Dueber, R. Energy density comparison of silver-zinc button cells with rechargeable Li-Ion and Li-Polymer coin and miniature prismatic cells. Battery Power. 2015;19(4)[Winter]:21-22. Available at:
  • Ortega J. Design and testing of the safe high energy density silver-zinc battery chemistry for hearing aid devices. Presentation at: International Battery Seminar and Exhibit, Fort Lauderdale, Fla; March 21, 2016.
  • Poison Control National Capital Poison Center. Nonfatal button battery ingestions with severe esophageal or airway injury: 200 cases. 2016. Available at:
  • Freeman B. A new door to rechargeable hearing aid battery solutions. Hearing Review. 2015;22(8)[Aug]:22. Available at:
  • Freeman B, Marincovich P, Madory R. Making Audiology green. Audiology Today. 2016; 28(1)[Jan/Feb]:50-54.

Correspondence can be addressed to HR or Dr Freeman at: [email protected]

Original citation for this article: Freeman B, Ortega J, Dueber R. What’s the State of Rechargeable Batteries for Hearing Aids? Hearing Review. 2016;22(9):28.

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