Lithium Ion Battery Voltage Chart
Every solar system owner should understand how the components in their system work. To achieve this, looking at a lithium ion battery voltage chart can be a great place to start.
Lithium ion batteries are one of the most popular batteries on the market. They’re found in almost every electronic device you can think of from cell phones to even solar power backup storage.
They have completely revolutionized the way we power various portable devices and electric vehicles. This is due to their versatility with loads of options available depending on what your electrical needs are.
The demand for these batteries has grown exponentially with many of the world’s population trying to live sustainable lives by turning to solar panels and electric vehicles. Lithium ion batteries are projected to significantly improve in both performance and sustainability.
However, before we get there, we need to understand how to read the voltage and discharge charts associated with these batteries.
In this article, we will guide you through what a typical voltage chart looks like, as well as touch on the importance of the voltage charge relationship in these batteries.
What Are Lithium Ion Batteries
Lithium ion batteries are a type of rechargeable battery that is used in a wide variety of appliances. They are called lithium ion batteries because they use lithium ions as their primary charge carrier.
The primary charge carrier’s job is to move between the anode and the cathode during periods of charging and discharging.
The anode of the battery is generally made of graphite, while the cathode is made up of lithium complex.
Lithium ion batteries, such as the 12v LiFePO4 battery. are different than other types of traditional batteries, as they have high energy densities, longevity, and a low-self discharge rate when they aren’t powering a device.
Furthermore, they are incredibly lightweight, and the time taken till full recharge is significantly faster than other types of batteries.
Unlike other batteries, such as marine batteries, they are unable to tolerate high temperatures. They also have a slight problem with overcharging. This can be hazardous because it tends to lead to fires and explosions in extreme cases.
However, these hazards are due to mismanagement and incorrect care for your batteries. One should always follow voltage charts as closely as possible to prevent damage and potential risks.
Voltage Chart for Lithium Batteries
There are different voltage sizes of lithium batteries with the most popular being 12 volts, 24 volts, and 48 volts. Each one has a different voltage rating at a specific discharge capacity.
It is also beneficial to understand the voltage and discharge rate of a 1-cell lithium battery. Use the chart of battery voltages chart below to determine the discharge chart for each battery.
As you can see the voltages are significantly different across the different types of batteries. All the ratings above are about a battery that is not being charged.
When the batteries are on charge the respective voltage ratings would be 3.65V for the 1 cell, 14.6V for the 12-volt, 29.2V for the 24-volt, and 48V for the 48-volt battery.
The 12V lithium ion battery voltage chart is the most common chart you will see when purchasing batteries, but it is always a good idea to get comfortable and understand how the different sizes affect the charge.
Voltage vs Charge Relationship
The relationship between voltage and charge is often overlooked, but it is an incredibly important concept to lithium ion batteries.
This relationship is important because it determines the amount of electrical energy that can be stored in the batteries and the rate at which the energy can be released.
The voltage of a lithium ion battery directly correlates to the quantity of charge that can be stored there. The battery can hold more energy with a greater voltage. To avoid overheating or damaging the battery, the voltage must be properly regulated.
Essentially, to provide the best performance and safety, lithium ion batteries are created to have a certain range of voltages. Manufacturers of lithium ion battery-powered electronics must make sure that their products are made to operate within this voltage range.
To avoid harming the battery or device, users should take care not to overcharge or discharge their lithium ion batteries outside of the recommended voltage range.
How Many Cycles Does a Lithium Have
Lithium ion batteries have incredibly long-life cycles lasting for approximately 6,000 cycles. 80% of the capacity will still be available after those 6,000 cycles. To put that number into perspective, the battery would have been cycled every day for 16 years.
Now, you only reach those 6,000 cycles if you don’t discharge below 10% and charge above 90%. To reach 6,000 cycles, a battery with a useful capacity of 100Ah must have 80Ah. You can obtain 4,000 cycles if you use the battery’s entire capacity, which is still a lot.
As you can see in the chart, voltage plays a key role in determining and it shouldn’t ever be overlooked when you are considering purchasing a new lithium ion battery.
You should always follow the correct battery care to ensure that it lost its full life cycle. Proper care will also prevent the risk of causing explosions within the battery.
It is also a good idea to compare your voltage charts with others such as the marine battery voltage chart. the battle born battery voltage chart. and the solar panel voltage chart if you are interested in connecting a solar panel to your battery.
You can always get in touch with ShopSolar.com if you need further help. They can provide you with expert guidance on lithium batteries and which ones are compatible with solar panel systems. Before installation, make sure to become familiar with a solar panel voltage chart.
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What are LiFePO4 Batteries?
LifePO4 batteries are lithium-ion batteries that are used as a battery bank to provide electricity when you are not near a typical 110-outlet power source in a home. They are often incorporated into off-grid power systems for adventure rigs, boats, tiny homes, and even golf carts! Lithium-ion batteries are more expensive than typical AGM batteries but are well worth the investment. Lithium deep-cycle batteries are known for their longevity, dependability, and ability to utilize more stored power without damaging them. AGM batteries can be damaged once they get below fifty percent capacity and may not recharge to full capacity if damaged.
Where Can You Find LifePO4 Batteries?
Now that you’re sold on LifePO4 lithium-ion batteries, where do you get them? Maxworld Power has you covered, and they even have a great power output chart available to help you determine how many batteries you should get!
How Do You Store LiFePO4 Batteries?
How you store your LiFePO4 battery 12v system depends on the temperature of the storage space and how long they will be stored. We recommend the following for how to store LiFePO4 12v batteries:
- Up to 1 month:.20 to 60°C (4 to 140°F)
- Up to 3 months:.10 to 35°C (14 to 95°F)
- Over 3 months: 15 to 35°C (59 to 95°F)
It is strongly recommended to store lithium batteries indoors during the off-season. It is also recommended to store LiFePO4 batteries at a state of charge (SOC) of approximately 50% or higher. If the battery is stored for a long time, cycle the battery at least once every six months. Do not store discharged batteries.
Disconnect Before Storing LiFePO4
Many customers have a main switch to disconnect the battery power. We recommend that you take additional measures to ensure that the battery is truly disconnected. This is because many camper vans still have components running in the background, such as carbon dioxide sensors, backlit stereos, or other emergency sensors that may bypass the main disconnect switch.
The best way to store the battery is to physically disconnect the main positive and negative wires from the LiFePO4 lithium battery. This will ensure that the batteries will not discharge during storage, and when you use them again, they will have enough power.
LiFePO4 batteries have a low self-discharge rate of 2% per month. This means that when lithium batteries are stored, they lose 2% of their charging capacity every month. We recommend disconnecting all power from the battery to prevent a higher discharge rate.
When you store LiFePO4 batteries, it is important to store them with a state of charge (SOC) of 50% or higher. When storing for a long time, using a higher charge state is recommended. If you want the batteries to maintain a good charge after the storage period is over, you should charge them to 100% and store them in a fully charged state.
Why You Should Not Charge A LiFePO4 Battery Below 0°C / 32°F?
LiFePO4 batteries should avoid charging below 0°C / 32°F prohibited (including standard charging, fast charging, and emergency charging), otherwise accidental capacity reduction may occur. The battery management system should be controlled according to the minimum charging temperature.
When attempting to charge a Lithium battery below 0°C / 32°F a chemical reaction referred to as “Lithium Plating” occurs. Lithium plating is caused by the charge current forcing the lithium ions to move at a faster reaction rate and accumulate on the surface of the anode.
When this chemical reaction occurs, the internal resistance of the battery increases and reduces the rate of chemical metabolism. This chemical reaction causes a permanent reduction of the battery’s capacity and will continue to reduce its capacity each time this reaction occurs.
The battery manufacturer will indicate the battery’s operating temperature (charging and discharging) on the product specification, and only need to strictly implement the installation standards.
How To Store And Maintain LiFePO4 Batteries During Winter?
You can take a few different steps to maximize the life of your lithium batteries during the cold winter months, including:
- Storing them in the proper temperature: Keep your lithium batteries in a place that does not get colder than 32 degrees Fahrenheit or warmer than 80 degrees Fahrenheit.
- Charging them regularly: Ideally, lithium batteries should never be completed uncharged, so it’s important to remember to charge your batteries in the winter months when they are most prone to quick loss of power.
- Cleaning them: Corrosion and dirt can cause the battery to lose charge faster, which decreases its lifespan, so it’s important to keep your lithium batteries clean. You can use a mix of water and baking soda for a gentle cleaning.
The Voltage Change Of The LiFePO4 Battery
During charging and discharging, there will be some voltage changes in LiFePO4 batteries. But the normal voltage range should be between 2.5V~3.65V, of which 3.65V is the maximum charge cut-off voltage. If it is larger than this value, then the battery may have problems. And 2.5V is the discharge cut-off voltage, smaller than this value means that the battery is over-discharging. But in most cases, the voltage of LiFePO4 battery will be maintained between 3.15~3.3V due to the stable discharge platform.
In addition, LiFePO4 batteries do not need float charging, and floating charging may even lead to overcharging of LiFePO4 batteries.
If you have any technical questions, please contact Tewaycell Technical Support at service @tewaycell.com
LiFePo4 Voltage Chart
Like any type of batteries, the LifePO4’s performance is also affected by wear and tear. That’s why it’s important to be familiar with its voltage chart and recommended DOD or depth of discharge.
Thermal Runaway Reading LiFePo4 Voltage Chart 6 minutes Next Battery C Rating
LifePO4 or lithium iron phosphate is a rechargeable battery known for having a long life cycle, high energy density, and for being safe to use compared to other lithium-ion batteries. They are commonly used to run solar electricity systems.
They are less prone to thermal runaway unlike their other counterparts, which means it is less likely to catch fire or explore due to overheating. This is because they require lower voltage and have stable cathode material. And, if they do overheat, they automatically turn off to cool down and conserve energy.
They don’t require being fully charged when in use and aren’t high maintenance.
On that note, in this article, we’ll tackle how to expand home power backup’s battery lifespan by taking a closer look at the LifePO4 voltage, SOC (state of charge) chart, etc.
What is the State of Charge or SOC?
According to TechTarget, the stage of charge (SOC) is a measurement of the amount of energy available in a battery at any specific point in time expressed as a percentage. Or in layman’s terms, SOC meant how much power a battery has before it needs to charge or be replaced. I.E. How much battery is left on your phone or laptop before the need to plug it in arises.
How to Measure the State of Charge?
There are different ways to determine the battery’s state of charge. They are the following:
- Voltage – is simple yet may provide inaccurate results because cell materials and temperature may affect the voltage. But in its simplest form, the higher the voltage is, the fuller the batter is. To ensure that you get an accurate reading, put the battery at rest for at least four hours before measuring it. Meanwhile, manufacturers recommend at least 24 hours of rest.
- Specific Gravity – requires a hydrometer to measure the SOC. It works by monitoring the density of liquid based on buoyancy. This means looking at any changes in the weight of the battery’s active chemicals while discharging. One of those chemicals is sulfuric acid. This active electrolyte decreases when the battery is used, resulting in the battery’s specific gravity diminishing.
- Counting Coulombs – works by measuring the current that’s flowing in and out of the battery. It uses Ampere-second (As) as the unit of measurement for charging and discharging.
The LifePO4’s Voltage
As stated above, new batteries come with a 30% charge in them. This is done by manufacturers to decrease the potential energy that can be released when shipping them. This amount is roughly about 13V.
And, like any type of battery, LifePO4 batteries have a specific discharge curve. Their voltage decreases as their capacity lessens from 100% to 0%. Provided below is a chart of the state of charge for four lithium voltage charts:
Click image to zoom/download chart
This chart only shows the voltage level of the battery and its equivalent capacity in percentage. But if you want to really see the charging state of the battery, you may want to get a multimeter or voltmeter. This will help you get the real-time current voltage and check the chart to see the corresponding number.
So, if you get a 24V LifePO4 battery that shows 26.1V on the voltmeter, the chart indicates that it’s about 60% on the SOC chart.
Factors that affect the battery’s SOC
There are a number of factors in the performance of the battery that may affect its SOC. Some of them include:
- Battery’s maintenance – how the battery is kept and maintained is important as the rest of the factors that affect its performance will follow. Proper maintenance includes working at a suitable temperature, using the right charger, and avoiding high current discharge.
- Battery temperature – like any of its counterparts, this battery’s performance is also affected by extreme heat While it has its own safety measures to avoid overheating, there are external factors that may contribute to its malfunction.
- Battery chemistry – since LifePO4 is made out of different materials, its SOC will be different from lead-acid batteries
- Battery application – how or what the battery is used for greatly affects how fast or slow energy is being used off of its system.
LiFePO4 Battery Voltage Chart
Let’s have a look at a few LiFePO4 battery voltage charts and see how they compare to one another.
12V Lithium Battery Voltage Chart
Let’s look at the lithium-ion battery voltage chart using a LiFePO4 battery 12v and see how it compares to lead-acid batteries.