EV Charging Industry Protocols and Standards
The technology powering the EV charging industry has evolved so much over the last few years. As EVs become a natural part of the transportation ecosystem, we are witnessing a shift toward the standardization of chargers and the introduction of new industry protocols for interoperability. Now more than ever, it is particularly challenging to keep up with new developments and ensure that technologies comply with the latest regulations and standards.
Charge point operators and e-mobility service providers are facing challenges expanding internationally especially in dealing with different protocols, regulations, and multi-currencies, and integrating roaming capabilities into their networks.
In this blog post, we’ve put together a list of the EV charging industry standards and protocols which deliver the flexibility that is needed for the entire electric vehicle market. Standardization in the industry will be a key enabler of future EV charging infrastructure developments.
EV Charging Protocols and Standards
CCS – Combined Charging System Standard
The Combined Charging System Standard covers several aspects of EV charging including AC and DC charging, communications between the charging station and the vehicle, load balancing, authentication and authorization to charge, and the vehicle coupler (the connector at the end of the charging cable, and the corresponding inlet in the vehicle). The term “combined” refers to the fact the CCS essentially adds Rapid DC charging through an extension of Type 1 and Type 2 AC connectors, resulting in Combo 1 (CCS1) and Combo 2 (CCS2) connectors respectively, which can provide up to 350 kW of power. CCS 1 connectors are the variety common in North America, while CCS 2 are found in Europe.
The CCS standard was introduced by seven automotive manufacturers (Audi, BMW, Daimler, Ford, General Motors, Porsche and Volkswagen) with the first prototype implementation demonstrated in May 2012. By 2014, the European Union adopted CCS2 as a requirement for EV charging networks. In the US, the first extensive CCS networks were completed along major corridors of the east and west coast in 2016. Today, companies in the U.S. that want to enjoy some of the 7.5 billion in federal funding allocated for the national EV charging network must support CCS.
NACS – North American Charging Standard
Tesla has dominated the North American EV market since 2012. The company did not adopt the CCS standard that became common in the US and Europe, but rather, used its own proprietary charging system. In November 2022, Tesla made its specification publicly available and announced it as the North American Charging Standard – NACS. Tesla charging stations outnumber CCS charging stations compared to all other service providers combined, making it the most common standard in the US. Like the CCS Combo plugs, NACS offers both AC and DC charging in one plug, however, its capacity exceeds that of CCS and can provide up to 1MW of power on DC.
Both Ford and General Motors have announced that they will adopt the NACS standard, and the first NACS-compatible vehicles should roll off the GM and Ford assembly lines in 2025. Until then, GM and Ford drivers will have to use an adapter to connect to NACS chargers.
NACS (formerly Tesla) connector
OCPP – Open Charge Point Protocol
The Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is an application protocol for communication between electric vehicle charging stations and a central management system. It is an international, open-source, vendor-independent standard which is available for free.
The protocol was developed by the Open Charge Alliance (OCA) for the EV infrastructure market, and is considered the de-facto standard for charging infrastructure interoperability among charging equipment manufacturers, software and systems providers, charging network operators and research organizations. The protocol is a proven way to optimize the cost and minimize the risk of networked infrastructure investments. It provides flexibility for infrastructure operators to be EVSE-agnostic and allows easy access for EV drivers.
Many key players in the EV industry (charging station manufacturers, utilities, charge point operators and back-office software providers) contributed to the development of the protocol.
The latest version, OCPP 2.0.1, has a lot of new and improved features for device management, transaction handling, security, Smart charging functionalities, support for display and messaging and the extensibility of OCPP.
OCPP 2.0.1 also offers the option to support plug and charge for electric vehicles supporting the ISO 15118 protocol.
OCPP 2.0.1 was featured in one of the Open Charge Alliance Webinars.
ISO 15118 Standard – Bi-directional charging/discharging
ISO 15118 is an international standard for bi-directional digital communications between electric vehicles and the charging station. It defines a V2G communication interface for bi-directional charging/discharging of electric vehicles.
As a key enabler of the Plug Charge capability, ISO 15118 allows EV drivers to insert the charge plug into the car, charge, and drive away when ready. This process is enabled by a digital certificate located in the vehicle, allowing it to communicate with the charging point management system (CPMS). This enables a seamless end-to-end charging process, which includes automatic authentication and billing, and avoids the need to use an RFID card, an app or to memorize PIN numbers.
EV Charging Roaming Protocols
OCPI – Open Charge Point Interface
The Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI) is designed for exchanging information about charge points between charge point operators and e-mobility service providers to enable scalable and automated EV roaming.
Supported use cases:
- Charge point information
- Authorizing charging sessions
- Handling registrations
- Smart charging
The specification includes:
- Providing session information including location data
- Sending remote commands, for actions such as reservations
- Providing charge detail records (CDRs) for billing purposes
- Authorizing charging sessions by exchanging tokens
OCHP – Open Clearing House Protocol (e-clearing.net)
The Open Clearing House Protocol (OCHP) is an open-source protocol that enables simple and uniform communication between a charging management system and a clearing house system.
OCHP enables seamless electric vehicle charging across charging station networks (e-Roaming). Using OCHP, eMobility service providers can connect to EV charging operators and providers in order to provide access to their network.
OICP – Open Intercharge Protocol
OICP was developed by Hubject and is a communication standard implemented between e-mobility service provider (EMSP) and charge point operator (CPO) systems through the Hubject platform.
The protocol enables information exchange based on contractual relationships between EMSPs and CPOs to Hubject, allowing them to offer reliable roaming to electric vehicle drivers.
eMIP – eMobility Interoperation Protocol
eMIP, provided by GIREVE, enables roaming of charging services by providing a charge authorization and a data clearinghouse API and access to a comprehensive charging point database.
Energy Management Protocols
OpenADR – Open Automated Demand Response
OpenADR is an open and secured foundation for interoperable information exchange to facilitate automated demand response.
It is typically used to send information and signals between distribution system operators (DSOs), utilities and energy management and control systems to balance energy demand during peak times.
OpenADR 2.0 enables standardization of demand response (DR) and distributed energy resource (DER) communications and automated DR/DER processes. It also simplifies customer energy management and eliminates stranded assets.
OSCP – Open Smart Charging Protocol 1.0
OSCP is an open protocol for communications between a charge point management system and an energy management system of a site owner or a DSO system.
The protocol can be used to communicate a real-time prediction of the local electricity grid capacity to the charge point operator. OSCP facilitates capacity-based Smart charging of EVs.
The Driivz platform is hardware-agnostic and based on open industry standards, supporting over 750 charger models.
- Driivz is one of the first companies to be formally certified for OCPP 2.0.1 by the Open Charge Alliance (golden node).
- Complies with ISO 15118 and OCPP 2.0.1 enabling vehicle-to-grid (V2G) communications.
- Driivz was one of the first vendors to provide full OCPI support (dating back to Nov 2018). In addition, Driivz was the first to integrate large networks in the USA (EVgo ChargePoint).
- Industry-standard protocols – OCPI, OCHP, OICP (Hubject), eMIP, and more.
- Plug-n-charge – to improve the charging experience and avoid the need to use an RFID card.
- Autocharge – providing Plug Charge like functionality based on vehicle MAC address.
- OpenADR certification
- Complies with Eichrecht, the German calibration law.
- Proprietary protocols – with tools to support and integrate any protocol.
Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
You can find 48 public charging ports at city facilities like Chautauqua, the recreation centers and downtown parking garages, as well as many more operated by businesses across town.
Public Charging Stations
Level two: 1 for the first two hours; 2.50 per hour for each additional hour
Level Three: 0.45 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for the first 30 minutes; 0.25 for each additional minute.
Four Level 2 and four Level 3 fast plugs.
Fast, Level 3 chargers are owned and operated by ChargePoint. Please contact ChargePoint customer service for questions and Комментарии и мнения владельцев related to pricing.
Plus city garage parking fee
Please note: The four ChargePoint fast chargers at the 1500 Pearl Parking Garage are currently undergoing repair and will be unavailable until May 18 at the earliest. There are two Level 2 EV chargers in the basement level.
City of Boulder electric vehicles goals and progress
Looking to buy or lease an EV? EnergySmart offers EV advising to walk you through what options are right for you, including tax savings and charging options.
The Colorado Energy Office (CEO) and the Regional Air Quality Council (RAQC) have partnered to provide an opportunity for local fleets to apply for funding to support the acquisition of electric vehicles and installation of electric vehicle charging stations. This effort to is intended to improve air quality and encourage the deployment of electric vehicles across Colorado.
The 2023 EV Charging Station Report: State-by-State Breakdown
With the global FOCUS on expanding the electric vehicle (EV) market and the impending ban on diesel and gasoline vehicle sales in the US by 2035, the prospect of owning an electric vehicle is becoming a reality for many future drivers. However, as the US is a vast country with each state operating under its own rules and regulations, the readiness of the nation for a widespread adoption of electric vehicles varies significantly. To assess the current state of EV infrastructure, we present the updated 2023 US Electric Vehicle Charging Station Report, offering a comprehensive state-by-state breakdown.
In this report, we delve into the crucial questions: How does the growth in EV adoption compare to the development of charging infrastructure? By analyzing the data, we aim to provide insights into the feasibility of a robust EV charging network and evaluate the current EV adoption rates in comparison to conventional vehicles. Additionally, we will explore the changes that have occurred since our previous edition of the report, shedding light on the evolving landscape of EVs and charging stations in the US.
- The number of EVs in the US has increased by 42% since the last edition of the report, increasing from 1,019,260 to 1,454,580.
- However, the growth in public charging outlets hasn’t quite matched that, growing from 128,549 to 143,771 over the same period, an increase of around 12%.
States with the most charging stations per EVs
When you’re considering switching to an electric vehicle you need to consider the competition for charging points. It’s all well and good to go green and try and cut your emissions, but if you can’t charge your vehicle, you aren’t going to get very far. Here are the states with the most chargers per 100 electric vehicles.
1 place – North Dakota
Total electric charging ports: 172
Registered EVs: 380
Charging stations per 100 EVs: 45.3
North Dakota leads the pack in terms of charging stations per EVs. With a total of 172 electric charging ports and 380 registered EVs, the state boasts an impressive ratio of 45.3 charging stations per 100 EVs.
While the state actually has the lowest number of electric vehicles overall, the fact that it has such a high ratio of chargers suggests that the local government is doing their bit to try and encourage residents to make the switch to electric.
2 place – Wyoming
Total electric charging ports: 213
Registered EVs: 510
Charging stations per 100 EVs: 41.8
Another state that has a relatively low uptake of electric vehicles, but with a comparatively high number of chargers is Wyoming, with 41.8 charging stations per 100 EVs.
Wyoming is one of a number of states in the United States that received government funding to create a network of chargers connecting highways right from the Atlantic Coast to the Pacific.
3 place – West Virginia
Total electric charging ports: 386
Registered EVs: 1,010
Charging stations per 100 EVs: 38.2
Not far behind Wyoming in terms of its rate of chargers to cars is West Virginia, with 38.2 charging points for every 100 EVs.
The number of registered EVs in West Virginia is relatively low, but with a decent charging infrastructure starting to develop to encourage more people to make the change.
States with the fewest charging stations per EVs
Nevertheless, several states are facing challenges in keeping pace with the rapidly growing demand for electric vehicles, particularly in terms of charging infrastructure.
1 place – New Jersey
Total electric charging ports: 2,694
Registered EVs: 47,830
Charging stations per 100 EVs: 5.6
New Jersey, despite having a high number of registered EVs at 47,830, falls short in terms of charging infrastructure. The state currently offers 2,694 electric charging ports, resulting in a meager 5.6 charging stations per 100 EVs.
To incentivize EV ownership and support the expansion of charging infrastructure, the state of New Jersey has launched initiatives. The local government provides grants to offset the cost of purchasing and maintaining electric vehicle charging stations.
It’s worth noting that New Jersey has made remarkable progress in improving its charging infrastructure. In fact, the state ranks among the top three states with the biggest increase in charging points, boasting a significant growth rate of 33.37% compared to the previous report. This positive development underscores New Jersey’s commitment to enhancing its EV charging network and accommodating the surging demand for electric vehicles.
2 place – Arizona
Total electric charging ports: 2,638
Registered EVs: 40,740
Charging stations per 100 EVs: 6.5
Arizona faces a similar challenge, with 2,638 charging ports and 40,740 registered EVs. This translates to 6.5 charging stations per 100 EVs. The state should FOCUS on expanding its charging infrastructure to better support the growing EV population. During the last year, the number of charging points increased by 17%.
3 place – Hawaii
Total electric charging ports: 940
Registered EVs: 14,740
Charging stations per 100 EVs: 6.6
Hawaii, despite being a pioneer in renewable energy adoption, lags behind in terms of charging infrastructure. The state currently offers 940 electric charging ports for its 14,740 registered EVs, resulting in a ratio of 6.6 charging stations per 100 EVs. Continued investment in charging infrastructure will be crucial for fostering EV growth in the state.
The US states with the highest percentage of electric vehicles on the road
While infrastructure plays a crucial role, it is equally important to emphasize that numerous states are experiencing a significant uptake in electric vehicles when compared to the overall number of vehicles on the road.
1 place – California
Registered private automobiles: 14,027,931
EVs as % of automobiles: 4.01%
California leads the nation in terms of EV adoption. With a staggering 563,070 registered EVs and 14,027,931 registered private automobiles, electric vehicles account for approximately 4.01% of the total automobiles in the state. California’s commitment to sustainable transportation is evident in its high EV penetration rate.
2 place – Hawaii
Registered EVs: 14,220
Registered private automobiles: 456,261
EVs as % of automobiles: 3.12%
The island state of Hawaii may seem like a surprising place for an EV success story, but there are strong incentives, short driving distances, and a climate that lends itself to EV performance.
Hawaii ranks second, with 14,220 registered EVs and 456,261 registered private automobiles. Electric vehicles constitute around 3.12% of the state’s total automobiles. Considering Hawaii’s unique geographic challenges and commitment to clean energy, the state is making commendable progress in EV adoption.
3 place – Colorado
Registered EVs: 37,000
Registered private automobiles: 1,479,975
EVs as % of automobiles: 2.50%
Colorado holds the third position, with 37,000 registered EVs and 1,479,975 registered private automobiles. Electric vehicles account for approximately 2.50% of the state’s total automobiles. Colorado’s efforts to incentivize EV adoption and develop charging infrastructure have contributed to its significant market share of electric vehicles.
The US states with the lowest proportion of electric vehicles on the road
1 place – Mississippi
Registered EVs: 1,310
Registered private automobiles: 891,658
EVs as % of automobiles: 0.15%
Mississippi has the lowest proportion of electric vehicles on its roads. With only 1,310 registered EVs out of a total of 891,658 registered private automobiles, EVs constitute a mere 0.15% of the state’s total automobile population.
2 place – North Dakota
Registered EVs: 380
Registered private automobiles: 208,03
EVs as % of automobiles: 0.18%
North Dakota, despite its strong charging infrastructure, has a relatively low proportion of EVs on the road. With only 380 registered EVs among 208,030 registered private automobiles, electric vehicles account for just 0.18% of the state’s total automobile population.
3 place – South Dakota
Registered EVs: 680
Registered private automobiles: 311,336
EVs as % of automobiles: 0.22%
South Dakota also faces a similar challenge. The state has 680 registered EVs out of 311,336 registered private automobiles, resulting in an EV proportion of 0.22%.
How have the number of EVs and charging stations in the US changed?
Following the 2020 election, the Biden administration announced that they expect 50% of all vehicles sold in the country to be electric by 2030 and the sale of fossil fuel vehicles banned by 2035, accomplished through purchase incentives, taxes and restrictions on internal combustion vehicles, new congestion charging zones and tougher emissions standards.
Since first taking a look at the EV charging station infrastructure in the US a year ago, the numbers of both electric vehicles themselves and chargers have both continued to increase.
In total, the number of electric vehicles in the US has increased by 42% since the last edition of the report, increasing from 1,019,260 to 1,454,580.
However, the growth in public charging outlets hasn’t quite matched that, growing from 128,549 to 143,771 over the same period, an increase of around 12%.
Several states have experienced significant growth in EV adoption since the last report. Oklahoma leads the pack, witnessing a remarkable 110.6% increase in registered EVs, soaring from 3,410 to 7,180. Arkansas follows closely, with a growth rate of 79.7%, seeing EV numbers rise from 1,330 to 2,390. Montana, North Dakota, and South Carolina also demonstrate substantial growth in EV adoption.
Michigan takes the top spot in terms of the growth in charging infrastructure, with a remarkable 49.34% increase in the number of electric charging points, surging from 1,806 to 2,697. Maine and New Jersey follow suit, showcasing notable growth rates of 35.37% and 33.37%, respectively. These states demonstrate a strong commitment to expanding charging infrastructure to support the increasing number of electric vehicles.
The number of charging outlets in each state was sourced from the Alternative Fuels Data Center’s Alternative Fueling Station Count by State, taking the number of electric EVSE ports in each state.
The number of electric vehicles in each state was sourced from the Alternative Fuels Data Center’s Electric Vehicle Registrations by State data and refers to the number of registered electric vehicles as of December 31, 2022. The number of vehicles registered in each state was sourced from the Federal Highway Administration’s Highway Statistics and refers to the total number of private and commercial automobiles including taxicabs).
The 2022 US EV Charging Point Report
If you want to read our previous report you can download it here:
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