DIY Power Bank!
About: I love scrapping and dissecting electronics and taking out the guts to see all the goodies inside. I think everyone should take something apart with no idea on how or intention to put it back together. About NickB6 »
I finished all my Spring/Summer projects, and needed a Fall project since September is rapidly approaching. I needed an idea and came across an old portable phone charger aka. power bank my wife got as a gift from her company. It stopped working, so it sat for a year until I found it. It charged when plugged in, but didn’t charge the phone (no output). I took it apart, and it had a thin 7 mm thick LiPo battery inside and some boost/protection IC’s on a board with SMD LED’s for charge and capacity indicators. The battery said 4000 mAh. Cool project material!
I got a different one for Christmas, but I could only charge my phone once before it needed to be recharged again 🙁 I wanted a better one, but didn’t want to spend 30 or 40 for a high capacity one https://www.amazon.com/Anker-PowerCore-Ultra-Compa
I came across these things (https://www.ebay.com/itm/Ultrathin-5000mAh-Externa. that looked like 2.5 external hard drive enclosures, but you put LiPo batteries in them and could turn them into portable chargers. I figured I could make one with the kit, but found out they were limited to 5000 mAh batteries. I wanted at least 6000 mAh, so I looked into custom fabricobbling something and decided it wasn’t worth it without a 3D printer or other tooling.
Then I stumbled across more DIY power bank kits from China like these: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Power-Bank-Kit-LCD-Dual-U. that took 18650 lithium ion batteries as the power source, not LiPo’s, which were kind of expensive for the thin ones that fit inside the enclosures.I ended up getting one more for the smaller liPo battery too and built that one. I had some 18650’s lying around from salvaged laptop batteries of varying capacity, so I figured why not? How hard could it be? So I hit up my PayPal for 6.99. Parts in the mail! Let’s get started!
Step 1: What You Need: Parts and Tools
Once I got the parts (from the USA this time), I realized that it’s not plug and play like some of the others that have the spring connectors already installed so you just insert the 18650’s like you would AA’s in a TV remote. You had to build a battery pack in order for it to work. Not a problem since I’ve done it before, but for those who haven’t, I’ll help you out in this tutorial. I’ve made tutorials for homemade battery packs before, so check those out if you want to.
That said, you need some tools to make it happen.
Soldering iron. Has to be at least 30 watts! Less and you won’t get good solder connections to the batteries. Holding the soldering iron on the battery terminals is not good. You want to minimize it as much as possible so the faster you melt the solder, the better.
Side cutters or flush cutters. Cheap ones, big or small are fine.
00 Phillips screwdriver for assembling the kit.
Lithium ion or polymer capable charger. You can use any that charge or analyze the batteries. I use a Zanflare C4, and my clone SkyRC iMax B6.
Sandpaper. For preparing the tabs and batteries for soldering. I’m using 500 grit, but 220 works too. Some tabs don’t need to be prepped, but I still do since the solder sticks to it better.
Multimeter. Nothing fancy, you need it to measure battery voltage.
Utility knife or wire strippers. I live on the edge and use a utility knife. Be careful when using one to strip wires.
For the materials, you need:
Nickle strips or solder tabs for battery pack construction. I prefer nickle strips, but since I wasn’t making a fancy, high output series/parallel battery pack with balance circuit, I used the tabs already on the cells leftover from the laptop battery connections. They work fine for this because we aren’t putting a big load on it and it’s only 3.7 volts.
Wire. I am using 24 gauge wire (.5.11 mm diameter). You don’t need anything crazy like 18 gauge or 16 gauge. The most this will draw is 2 amps, and at the low voltages the wire can handle it, but I wouldn’t go below that.
Masking tape. You can use electrical tape too for holding the batteries together while soldering them. If you want to be real fancy, you can use those battery spacers to position and align the batteries. I used my eyeballs and a flat surface.
Four (4) 18650 batteries. The more capacity the better.
Step 2: The Pack
So, we need to build a 4 cell pack with the cells in parallel. Usually these batteries are in a series/parallel configuration to have higher voltage and keep the capacity up. In a series connection, the voltage is combined across the batteries, but the capacity is the same as a single cell. My other Instructable explain this in detail, but basically we are connecting all the positive and all the negative terminals of the batteries together, with a positive and negative output going off each to the load.
The power bank outputs 5 volts which is regulated by the circuit board to increase the battery pack’s voltage beyond 3.7 volts.This is how we can get away with a parallel configuration, where the positive and negative terminals of the batteries are joined together. This makes for a very high capacity, which we want! I am shooting for at least 6000 or 9000 mAh, which is why I am making two packs. One is out of 1500 mAh cells, the other is 2400 mAh cells.
Step 3: The Batteries
We know to connect the positive and negative terminals of the batteries together, so let’s get going.
My packs will be made from some batteries I salvaged from two HP laptop battery packs I got at my thrift depot for around 4 for both. That’s 12 cells total. I made an Instructable on how to get and salvage these type of batteries. I have two models of Moli Energy Company 18650 ICR cells. Moli Energy used to be in Canada, but are now owned by a Taiwanese company and make batteries for all kinds of companies and OEM’s, so they are good quality. The teal color ones weren’t clearly marked and data was near impossible to find, but I presume they were 1500 mAh capacity and good for 2’ish amps discharge (like most all ICR-type chemistry) since they came out of an old HP ProBook laptop battery rated at 3 Ah and 11.1 volts. I ran them on my charger analyzer, and they came out to be average of 1455 mAh, so pretty close to the 1500 figure. The blue ones are newer ICR-18650J and I found the datasheet for those easily. 2400 mAh at 2.2 amps discharge, so pretty good! I tested them and they actually came out over their rating at an average of 2453 mAh.
Test the batteries. Make sure their voltages are really close together, within./.03 volts. These are pretty good since I had tested, charged, and discharged them previously. Plus, they’ve always been used together in the battery pack. As a rule of thumb, it’s ideal to use batteries that were previously in a battery pack since they are conditioned together and will be roughly the same voltage since there’s usually a balance circuit in laptop batteries or multiple cell lithium packs. If you’re using random cells, make sure they are around the same voltage and the same capacity and condition. Test them first. Having a weak cell in a parallel pack isn’t as bad as in a series pack, but it’s still not good as it hurts capacity.
If the voltages look good, we’re ready to move on.
Step 4: Building the Pack(s)
Usually you use solder tabs or nickle strips with a spot welder to make battery pack connections, but I don’t have a spot welder and don’t need one as they cost about 250 USD for a Chinese one, so we will be soldering them together. Not the recommended way, but it should be fine if you’re careful.
Start by figuring out the size of the strips you need to connect the cells together. These batteries already had the remnants of the tabs from the laptop battery intact that were already spot welded on, so I figured I’d just solder them back together. The remaining strips were long enough to just solder together, and where I needed more, I just cut one to length and soldered it on.
Prep the surfaces you will be soldering by scuffing them with the sandpaper where the connection will be made. Since the tabs from the laptop battery pack were still welded to the terminals, I trimmed the tabs to length and soldered them together to avoid having to solder directly on the battery terminal, which isn’t good for the cells. It can cause heat buildup and capacity loss, or damage the battery. I connected two cells, then taped the rest together to keep them aligned and level.
If you need to make a strip to fill a gap, scuff and add solder to both ends and solder to the tabs on the battery, and solder the strip on.
When finished, the connections should be strong. Add a tab to the positive ad negative side so you can add the output wires. I also taped the sides to protect the exposed terminals. I had some thick paper pieces desined for this, but didn’t have enough for both. Measure the voltage of the pack and it should equal the same across all cells. /-.02 volts is fine. Eventually, they will equalize in voltage as they sort of self balance.
I built two packs, one with the 1500 mAh cells, and another with the 2400 mAh cells, so one is 6000 mAh, and the other is 9600 mAh, so pretty high capacity! I tossed them on my charger and put it in discharge mode, and charged the other. It has a 5000 mAh limit for capacity and a 300 minute safety timer, and it maxed out, so I can safely assume that it’s well over that. I say that’s a win.
Now we’re ready to add them to our power bank kit!
Step 5: The Kit!
In the package was the two halves of the enclosure/case, the PCB, a button assembly, and a reflector for the built-in LED flashlight, two tiny self-tapping Philips screws, and two clear plastic lenses to cover the LCD display and flashlight reflector openings. The case halves were covered in a plastic film, and I figured out why quick. The case is a very shiny plastic finish made from rigid plastic. It’s an absolute fingerprint magnet, and the slightest scratch shows up. Trust me, it was scratched within seconds of the plastic coming off. Kind of a bummer, but it is what it is.
The board has two USB A outputs, one for 5 volts 1A output, and a second for 5 volts, 2A output (for charging iPads, tablets, devices that use 2A output, and a Micro USB B input for charging the power bank’s battery. I tried charging it with my phone’s high output charger (9 watts), but I couldn’t tell if it charged it any faster than a standard 5 watt charger. It’s a big battery, so it did take a long time to charge! About 9 hours. The LCD has a nice blue backlight, and shows you overall battery capacity, status (charge in/discharge out), and the type of output being used (1A or 2A). I can only presume what the IC’s do, but there’s probably a gas gauge IC, one for regulating voltage output, and another for battery protection/charging.
Step 6: Assemble the Electronics
Putting it all together was pretty straightforward. It did require some finaggling, but I eventually got it together. Just so you know, instructions are nowhere to be found! Start by preparing the PCB. You need your soldering iron and some solder for this. Add solder to the two battery input solder pads. Next, solder the battery output wires to their respective pads, positive and negative. DO NOT reverse the polarity, or you will probably cause the board to release the magic blue smoke, at which point it won’t work anymore as there is usually no input protection on these cheap Chinese boards. I had to shorten the output wires of my battery to get it to fit, which I expected. The board will power up at this point as well, so you should see it display the battery level.
Step 7: Add the Bits
We need to add some of the parts to the case next including the button, it’s housing/trim, and the LED’s reflector. There are mounting posts for the button trim piece, and it snaps into place. The fit was pretty good. The button itself goes on first, and you can secure it with glue, or use a hot piece of metal to melt the two posts down so it secures the button and trim in place. I used some CA glue (aka. super glue). The reflector for the LED just sets in place and is held in by a little divider. It’s mostly held in place by the LED itself pressing on it, which was pretty wonky, so I put a little super glue on the case where the reflector sits and put the lens on. You can add the plastic lenses now or later. They have a backing covering the pre applied adhesive. Peel it off to expose the adhesive. There was strangely another adhesive pad on the lens itself that I had to carefully peel off too. I used the point of my utility knife to do it. Oddly, there’s another protective film on the outside of the lens too. I peeled that off last. The adhesive is pretty strong, so I don’t think the lenses will come off.
Step 8: Add the Board and Battery
Now you can add the board and the battery. It’s a tight fit, so you may need to test fit first. Make sure you don’t crimp any wires too badly to prevent future breakage or bad connections. I put the board in first, sliding the LED into the reflector first, the gently pressing it on the right side until it snapped into place. It might take a couple of tries to get it right, so be patient. Once it’s in place, add the screws. You need a 00 Philips screwdriver, by the way.
Step 9: Put It All Together
Now that the electronics are in, you can snap the case together. I added some 2 mm microcell foam strip scraps I had lying around to the top of my battery to cushion it from jolts and to keep it from flopping in the case if dropped or banged around.This is optional, but I highly recommend it. Set the top half of the case on the bottom to make sure it’s aligned right. Then Press down on the sides, moving your way around the outside to engage the snaps on the front, sides, and rear until it’s all secure and the tops and bottom are flush. Note this thing isn’t water proof or splash proof/resistant. You could add clear silicone to the board around the outputs and switch to help, but that would make it a pain to fix in the event the battery connections went bad, or it ever needed replacing.
Step 10: Test, and You’re Done!
It’s all together, now you test it to activate the circuit. It needs a 5 volt signal, so plug it into any wall charger through the micro USB input. Once you get that, you’re done! Plug in your cable of choice and charge something! The LCD displays the percentage of battery life remaining and the status, input (charging the internal battery) and output (charging a device), and the type of output 5 volt 1A, or 5 volt 2A. I think the battery gauge is a little off, since my phone battery is 3200 mAh, and at 71% charge it shows 68% battery capacity, which isn’t anywhere near the actual battery capacity of around 9600 mAh /- 150-200 mAh. If I can get 3 charges or 2.5 full charges off it, I call it a success though. I might get a second one of these for my other battery as well.
I used it to also charge my Bluetooth speaker and it worked great.
The LED light is very useful and a welcomed addition. It’s not super-bright, but not dim either. Good for an emergency or for finding that elusive charging port at night or a lost charger under the dresser. To activate it, just press the power button twice quickly, and again to turn it off.
I tried the phone on the 2A output, and didn’t notice a difference in charge speed. It’s dependent on the device’s charging ability for that, and this phone wasn’t designed for that. No biggie!
I hope you liked this Instructable. I tried to do a topic that there’s not many guides on, so if you found it helpful, let me know, or let me know if I could do better!
To get the most out of a power bank it must be used in the right way. there are some key tips on how to get the best from your power bank.
Power banks are used by a lot of people and they can be essential for providing extra power whilst on the move for mobile phones and other gadgets.
Power banks are easy to use and their operation is easy to master, but there are some pitfalls that can mean they might not be as effective as they might be and provide all the power you want.
By following a few guidelines when using and keeping the power bank, the top performance can be obtained and its life can be extended so it won’t let you down.
Basic power bank usage
Power banks are generally very easy to use, and typically conform to some simple conventions, especially with respect to the connectors.
Normally power bank connectors have separate functions and the two connectors used for these functions are very different, making it easy to differentiate them.
- Micro USB (sometimes mini-USB): Most commonly a power bank will use a micro-USB for being charged. This enables the standard USB A to micro-USB leads to be used to charge the power bank. Often the same lead used to charge a mobile phone or other device can be used.
- USB Type A connector: The larger type A USB connector is used to enable the power bank to charge other devices. This means that standard charging cables supplied with most phones and other devices can be used. Normal USB chargers have a Type A connector from which the charge is supplied.
When using the power bank, it is normally only necessary to connect a powered USB micro connector to it for it to receive charge.
Depending on the power bank capacity, its charge level, and the charger, the ambient temperature, etc., it can take quite a while to complete its charge.
As an example, a 1500mAh rated power bank should take very roughly about the same time as a typical smartphone to charge. For larger power banks, this time can be considerably increased. it may take two three, four. times as long.
Power banks have electronic battery management and this includes a safety cut-off to prevent overcharging and overheating. However, whenever possible, it is best to remove the power bank from charger when it is full. at least avoid leaving it connected long-term after its full.
However when using the power bank to charge electronic devices, the leads need to be connected, and it is normally necessary to use a button on the power bank to enable the charging. This is required because a sort circuit on the output of the power bank could generate a lot of heat and possibly cause the power bank to catch fire or explode.
This prevents keys in s (if the power bank is carried in a ) and other metallic items causing an accidental short circuit, and the output normally has to be enabled before use.
Often the power bank will have a simple LED indicator showing the level of charge it has when charging is enabled, or when it is being charged. These indicators often turn off after a short while to preserve the power bank charge.
Power bank charge capacity
One of the key aspects, when buying a power bank is to ensure that it has sufficient capacity to provide a charge for the device to be charged.
One of the most common uses for power banks is to charge mobile phones whilst on the move when there are unlikely to be any suitable charge points.
With modern mobile phone internal batteries now being able to store large amounts of charge (some are over 2500mAh), it is necessary that the power bank has in excess of this if it is to give the mobile phone battery a full charge.
It is also necessary to remember that the charging process is not 100% efficient. some of the supplied power is dissipated as heat, etc.
As a result the power bank should have a slightly larger capacity than the phone battery if it is to give it a full charge.
If the power bank has a smaller charge capacity than the phone, it will only be able to give it a partial charge. this may be acceptable in some instances if the power bank is only needed to top-up the main phone battery.
Power bank care: usage hints, tips guidelines
In order to get the best from any power bank there are a few guidelines that will help ensure the performance is gained from the power bank for as long as possible.
- Keep at room temperature: The best performance can be obtained from a power bank if it is kept at around room temperature. While this may not be possible all the time, it is wise to use this as a general guideline. The battery technology used in power banks is lithium ion, and these batteries do not like getting excessively cold, or too warm either. One of the key things to remember is that they should not be left in automobiles. In the summer sun the inside of cars can rise to in excess of 50°C, and in winter the cars have no heating when they are not in use, so the temperatures can fall really low in some places. Either scenario is not good for lithium rechargeables.
- Charge before first use: Manufacturers always recommend giving a new power bank a full charge before use. The internal circuits will cut out the excess charge, but it is always wise to get it into a known state before starting to use it.
- Keep the battery charged: This may sound obvious, but the power bank is no use if it is not charged up. It helps to get used to charging it up as soon as possible after it has been used. In this way it will always be ready for use.
- Charge the power bank when not used for period: Lithium ion and lithium polymer rechargeable batteries do not like being left in a fully discharged state for long periods. As batteries will always lose a little charge with time, it is best to periodically recharge the power banks when they have not been used for some while. This means they are ready for use and the battery is kept in tip op condition. The ideal state for a lithium ion battery is neither fully charged or discharged, so if possible keep it in an approximate mid-charge state if it is to be left for a long period.
- Only use power bank in the intended way: This may sound obvious, but a power bank should only ever be used for charging the type of device for which it is intended. Some devices may have different voltages, although if they have a USB connection this would not be the case. Also large devices may draw too much current from a small power bank and the like.
- Keep away from moisture: Power banks are electronic devices, and therefore they do not like water, or even moisture. One key piece of advice when using power banks is to keep them dry at all times. With the amount of power within the power bank, moisture can cause significant damage.
- Don’t keep in or bag with metal objects: In view of the amount of power held within power banks, and the possibility of short circuit, one very important aspect of using power banks is to make sure they are never shorted. Although power banks normally have a button which needs to be pressed to enable the supply on the output, it is always best to be careful and make sure they are never placed in a position where metal objects could short the output. Putting them in a alongside keys is a definite “No No.”
- Don’t drop it: Power banks incorporate circuit boards as well as the battery. Like any other item of electronic equipment they need to be handled with some care. Dropping them can damage the case, the circuit board, or even the lithium rechargeable battery element itself. Take care when handling them.
Power bank rechargeable batteries are very easy to use. With a few sensible precautions they are really accommodating and provide additional charge when you are on the go and don’t have access to mains power.
One of the main points to remember, is to keep them charged. This is sometimes easier said than done, but there is no use having it if it is not recharged as soon as possible after it has been used.
Mobile Power Banks
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(b) (Shipping) All delivery times provided to you are estimates only and are subject to postal delays and reasons beyond our control. We do not warrant or make any representation that your order will be delivered within the times indicated. We will not be liable for any loss or damage suffered as a result of or in connection with late deliveries.
(c) (Accepting delivery) You must provide us with all relevant delivery details when submitting a Purchase Order, including by providing the delivery address, details of the space in which the relevant Goods are to be installed, details of any obstacles to such Goods’ installation and any other details which we reasonably ought to be aware of in order to deliver and/or install the relevant Goods.
(d) (Redelivery costs) You agree that you must pay reasonable redelivery costs (as reasonably specified by us and invoiced to you) if redelivery is necessary to complete delivery or installation of Goods, and if the original failed delivery or installation was caused or contributed to by you not providing us with sufficient details in accordance with clause 2.5(c) above.
(e) (Installation) We may be able to assist you with installation of some Goods. If we do, risk in the Goods will not be affected and you continue to assume risk in the Goods once delivered. You agree that it is your responsibility to supervise such installation and ensure that no damage is caused to your premises or personal property as part of the installation, and you release us from any such loss or damage arising out of our installation of the Goods.
(f) (Old items) You agree that in supplying Goods, Appliance Giant may assist you by removing old items from your premises, and you agree to transfer title in such old items to us.
(g) (Your obligations) If Appliance Giant provides delivery, redelivery, installation or removal services for old items under this clause 2.5, you agree:
A. co-operate with Appliance Giant in receiving such services;
B. comply with Appliance Giant’s reasonable directions in this regard;
C. provide Appliance Giant with all documentation, information and assistance reasonably required for the Appliance Giant to perform such services;
D. liaise with Appliance Giant as it reasonably requests for the purpose of enabling Appliance Giant to provide such services; and
E. pay additional service fees for changes to such services requested by you which are outside the scope originally agreed;
(ii) to pay Appliance Giant for such services in the amounts and at the times specified in any relevant invoice issued to you by Appliance Giant; and
(iii) any service that requires Appliance Giant to acquire goods and services supplied by a third party on your behalf may be subject to the terms conditions of that third party (Third Party Terms), including ‘no refund’ policies, and you agree to any Third Party Terms.
2.6 TITLE AND RISK
(a) (Title) Until the price of Goods is paid in full, title in those Goods is retained by Appliance Giant.
(b) (Risk) Risk in the Goods will pass to you on delivery. Delivery must not be refused by you.
(c) (Failure to pay) If you do not pay for any Goods on or before the due date for payment:
(i) or you otherwise fail to comply with these Terms, and by the terms of sale credit has been extended to you, Appliance Giant reserves the right to revoke such credit and demand immediate payment before any further shipment of Goods;
(ii) you must pay Appliance Giant interest at the rate of 12% per annum on each amount outstanding, from the due date for payment to the date on which the payment is received by Appliance Giant;
(iii) you authorise Appliance Giant, its employees and agents to enter any premises occupied by you or any other place where the Goods are located and use reasonable force to retake possession of the Goods without liability for trespass or any reasonable damage;
(iv) Appliance Giant may at its option keep or resell Goods retaken from you; and
(v) if you sell Goods or items into which the Goods are incorporated before payment in full to Appliance Giant, you acknowledge that such sale is made by you as bailee for and on behalf of Appliance Giant, to hold the proceeds of sale on trust for Appliance Giant, in an account in the name of Appliance Giant, and you must pay that amount to Appliance Giant on demand.
2.7 DOMESTIC USE ONLY
Unless otherwise indicated, the Goods are for domestic use, and you acknowledge and agree that putting the Goods to commercial use, or to any use other than domestic use, is likely to impact the manufacturer’s warranty for those Goods.
2.8 CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
Appliance Giant reserves the right to refuse international orders. Approved international orders may be subject to customs and import duties upon reaching its country of destination. You will be responsible for paying all customs and import duties and acknowledge that failure to pay may result in your order being held at customs. We will not be liable for any costs you may incur in having your order released from customs, including reimbursing you for any customs or import duties you may pay.
2.9 EXTENDED WARRANTY
Appliance Giant may offer extended warranty packages from time to time and you acknowledge and agree that:
(a) the offerings under such packages will likely overlap with Appliance Giant’s and the relevant manufacturers’ obligations under the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)); and
(b) none of the cost to you for such packages is referable to the extent of that overlap.
2.10 RETURNS EXCHANGES
(a) Returns of Goods will only be accepted if the Goods are faulty and you comply with the provisions of this clause.
(b) (Change of mind return) We may accept change of mind returns if you comply with the following terms:
(i) you must notify us via email of a requested change of mind return within 30 days of the date of delivery of the relevant Good;
(ii) you may return the relevant Good to an address nominated by us, at your cost;
(iii) you may request that we facilitate the return of the relevant Good, in which case you must pay our costs of doing so, in accordance with the invoice we issue you for such costs;
(iv) if you request a store credit for a change of mind return, instead of a refund, we may waive the costs specified in clause 2.8(b)
(iii) for facilitating the return of the relevant Good.
(c) (Faulty products) If you believe your Goods are faulty, you may contact us using the details provided on our website with a full description of the fault (including images if possible).
You may also request the relevant manufacturer’s contact details and details of the relevant manufacturer’s processes for making a claim under that manufacturer’s warranty.
If we determine that your Goods may be faulty, we will request that you send the product back to us at your cost for further inspection, including any accessories, manuals, documentation or registration shipped with the product. At our election, we may require that we collect the relevant Goods for further inspection, instead of you sending the product back to us, which we will do at a reasonable cost to you. We reserve the right to further inspection before deeming a product faulty.
If we determine in our reasonable opinion that the product is not faulty, or is faulty due to fair wear and tear, misuse, failure to use in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, or failure to take reasonable care, we will refuse your return and send the product back to you at your own cost.
If we determine that the product is faulty, you will be credited the full amount paid (including shipping costs) and you may request a refund, exchange or store credit. All refunds will be credited back to your original method of payment unless you request otherwise and we approve this request.
If you fail to comply with the provisions of this clause in respect of defective Goods, we may, in our discretion, issue only a partial refund or no refund in respect of such defective Goods, provided that nothing in this clause is intended to limit the operation of any manufacturers’ warranties which you may be entitled to or any of your rights which cannot be excluded under applicable law.
(a) (Governing law) This agreement is governed by the law applying in New South Wales, Australia.
(b) (Jurisdiction) Each party irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of New South Wales, Australia, and courts of appeal from them in respect of any proceedings arising out of or in connection with this agreement. Each party irrevocably waives any objection to the venue of any legal process on the basis that the process has been brought in an inconvenient forum.
(c) (Amendments) These Terms may only be amended by Appliance Giant in accordance with the Terms.
(d) (Waiver) No party to these Terms may rely on the words or conduct of any other party as a waiver of any right unless the waiver is in writing and signed by the party granting the waiver.
(e) (Further acts) Each party must promptly do all further acts and execute and deliver all further documents required by law or reasonably requested by another party to give effect to these Terms.
(f) (Assignment) A party cannot assign, novate or otherwise transfer any of its rights or obligations under these Terms without the prior written consent of the other party.
(g) (Entire Agreement) These Terms embody the entire agreement between the parties and supersede any prior negotiation, conduct, arrangement, understanding or agreement, express or implied, in relation to the subject matter of the Terms.
(h) (Interpretation) In these Terms, the following rules of interpretation apply:
(i) (singular and plural) words in the singular includes the plural (and vice versa);
(ii) (gender) words indicating a gender includes the corresponding words of any other gender;
(iii) (defined terms) if a word or phrase is given a defined meaning, any other part of speech or grammatical form of that word or phrase has a corresponding meaning;
(iv) (person) a reference to “person” or ”you” includes an individual, the estate of an individual, a corporation, an authority, an association, consortium or joint venture (whether incorporated or unincorporated), a partnership, a trust and any other entity;
(v) (party) a reference to a party includes that party’s executors, administrators, successors and permitted assigns, including persons taking by way of novation and, in the case of a trustee, includes any substituted or additional trustee;
(vi) (these Terms) a reference to a party, clause, paragraph, schedule, exhibit, attachment or annexure is a reference to a party, clause, paragraph, schedule, exhibit, attachment or annexure to or of these Terms, and a reference to these Terms includes all schedules, exhibits, attachments and annexures to it;
(vii) (document) a reference to a document (including these Terms) is to that document as varied, novated, ratified or replaced from time to time;
(viii) (headings) headings and words in bold type are for convenience only and do not affect interpretation;
(ix) (includes) the word “includes” and similar words in any form is not a word of limitation; and
(x) (adverse interpretation) no provision of this agreement will be interpreted adversely to a party because that party was responsible for the preparation of this agreement or that provision.
How is a Power Bank Made How Does It Work?
Power banks have become widely popular because of the use of battery-powered electronics like our smartphones. Some batteries just aren’t powerful enough to go all day without needing a recharge, so power banks are often a necessity! The real question is: How are these portable chargers even made? We’ve got the power to show you exactly how the mighty power bank was made, along with some helpful tips and tricks to keep yours in perfect working order. This small mobile accessory packs a large punch!
What is a Power Bank? Top
A power bank is a portable charger that works on battery-powered electronics. Power banks can recharge smartphones, tablets, laptops, and Bluetooth devices.
You’ll find power banks in a variety of shapes and sizes, both with and without a wire. These chargers are a good backup if you lose battery.
How Does a Power Bank Work? Top
A power bank is a wireless battery that can receive and produce charge. For a power bank to work, it must be charged to store energy. First, an adapter cable provided with the power bank is used to charge it with a wall outlet. Once the indicator light on the power bank shows the accessory is charged, it can be used to charge electronic devices.
The energy stored in a power bank is then transferred through a charging cable from the USB port to the device.
How a Power Bank is Made Top
If you’ve ever wondered what’s inside your power bank, we have the answers. A power bank is made through 10 simple steps!
Here’s how a power bank is made:
- Step 1: Terminals are attached to the lithium-ion battery.
- Step 2: The circuit board is assembled.
- Step 3: The batteries are soldered to the circuit board.
- Step 4: Each power bank is tested to determine current and voltage.
- Step 5: The batteries are encased in a protective housing.
- Step 6: Electrical connections are tested again to ensure working order.
- Step 7: A burn-in test is performed to check the battery capacity.
- Step 8 (Optional): The brand name or a design is printed or engraved onto the protective housing.
- Step 9: Finished power banks are given one last visual inspection before shipping.
- Step 10: The power banks are ready to charge your electronic devices.
- Step 1
Attach the Battery
The terminals are attached to the positive and negative ends of the lithium-ion battery using soldering.
Assemble the Circuit Board
Next is the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) where the electric components are soldered on to the circuit board. A circuit board is the brains of a power bank.
Solder the Batteries
The batteries are soldered to the circuit board by the terminals. The newly conjoined circuit boards and batteries are then sent down a conveyor belt for the next step.
Test the Power Bank
A DC Power Tester is used to determine the current and voltage of the power banks. The power bank is tested through the USB and USB min ports on the circuit board.
Add Protective Housing
The battery and circuit board are encased in protective housing made of aluminum or ABS plastic.
Test Electrical Connections
CT100 testers are used to check the electrical connections in the power bank. The chargers are checked to make sure they can receive and produce a charge.
Test Battery Capacity
A burn-in test is performed to monitor the battery capacity of the newly produced power banks. Hundreds of power banks are charged at once for several hours.
Step 8 (Optional)
Add Label and Design
Labeling and design is added to the power banks using screen printing, pad printing, or laser engraving.
Final Visual Inspection
The power banks are given one final visual inspection before they are packaged and shipped to the destination.
Ready to Charge Your Device
Check out how power banks are made in this video! Top
And there you have it! The simple process allows large quantities of power banks to be made at once for a lower cost. You now know how your power bank came to be one of your most important tech accessories.
What Is the Lifetime of a Power Bank? Top
The average working life of a power bank is between 200 and 1000 cycles. A cycle is one charge of the device, either partially or fully. The average lithium-ion battery inside power banks will start to lose their capacity after so many charging cycles. Larger power banks require less charging cycles, so they will last longer than smaller power banks.
There is no guarantee to how long your power bank will last, but reducing how often you use your power bank can make it last longer.
What Can a Power Bank Charge? Top
A power bank can charge just about any electronic device that has a rechargeable battery. Devices that normally use a USB charger can be charged with a power bank!
A power bank can charge the following electronics:
- GPS systems
- Gaming devices
- MP3 players
If your device does not have a USB interface, you might still be able to use a power bank if wireless charging is a feature of both the device and charger. Before using your power bank, make sure that it provides proper voltage to adequately charge your device. You can always check with the manufacturer of your device if you are uncertain.
Can a Power Bank Charge a Laptop? Top
Yes, a power bank can charge a laptop, but only if it is the right kind! Unfortunately, you won’t be able to charge your laptop with just any power bank, but there are certain types that can keep your battery charged.
Most laptops can be charged with a USB-C port. If the charging cord provided with your laptop has a USB-C, then you can use a power bank that also has a USB-C output to charge it.
Once you have the correct cables, you’ll want to make sure your power bank will deliver 30W of power in order to charge your laptop. If your power bank has fewer watts, it won’t be powerful enough to charge your laptop and could potentially drain your battery.
The following manufacturers make laptops that are USB-C compatible:
If your laptop does not support USB-C charging, you’ll need a power bank with a 12V output and a cable that fits the laptop’s charging port. If you are unsure if your power bank can charge your laptop, you can always reach out to the manufacturer!
Why Are Some Power Banks Expensive? Top
Not all power banks are created equal, especially when it comes to price. Some power banks are more expensive than others because of how they are made and their charging capacity.
Higher quality power banks are more expensive because they last longer, have a more powerful battery, and are made with high quality materials. A more budget-friendly power bank will still charge your battery, but it may be smaller or not hold a charge as long.
Do Power Banks Ruin Your Phone? Top
It is possible to damage your phone’s battery from using a power bank. However, if you are using your power bank correctly, you significantly decrease the odds of ruining your phone.
Here are some of the ways a power bank can ruin your phone:
- Using a low-quality power bank
- Power banks with insufficient voltage
- Overcharging your phone
Using a Low-Quality Power Bank
Low-quality power banks aren’t all guaranteed to ruin your smartphone battery. However, if you are using it frequently and for long periods of time, it can cause damage to your phone’s battery by making it lose its charge faster. The best way to avoid this is to make sure you have a high-quality power bank, or to use your lower quality charger only when you need it most. Lower-quality power banks usually have small batteries, are low-cost, and provide insufficient power to your devices.
A Power Bank With Insufficient Voltage
The power bank you use to charge your phone should have 5V. If your power bank has less voltage, it can drain your battery instead. If your power bank has a voltage greater than 5V, it can damage your phone by overloading the battery. Be sure to check the voltage of your power bank before using it to charge your phone.
Overcharging Your Phone
Power banks aren’t designed to be constantly plugged into your phone to keep it at 100% battery life. If you constantly charge your phone, your battery will not be able to hold its charge for long periods of time. It is best to use your power bank sparingly and to unplug it from your phone when it’s close to being fully charged.
Following these tips will allow you to use your power bank without fear of damaging your smartphone! The best rule of thumb is to use your power bank only when you absolutely need it, and to unplug your phone after it has enough battery.
The Bottom Line
Power banks will always be a necessity because they provide the energy our phones, laptops, and tablets need each day. Through their simple manufacturing process and their capacity to charge a variety of devices, power banks are the ultimate tech accessory!
Kishore, Aseem. (2019, July 20). Everything You Should Know About Power Banks. Retrieved on March 9, 2020, from, https://helpdeskgeek.com/reviews/everything-you-should-know-about-power-banks/
Dealna. (2020). Power Banks – What Impact They Have On Your Phone’s Battery. Retrieved on March 10, 2020, from https://dealna.com/Article/Post/20822/Power-Banks-What-Impact-They-Have-On-Your-Phone-s-Battery
Tespack. (2016, August 10). 7 facts you didn’t know about power banks. Retrieved on March 10, 2020, from https://www.tespack.com/7-facts-dont-know-power-banks/
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