Connector types for EV charging around the world. Type 2 car charger

Connector types for EV charging around the world

As it usually happens with every new technology, the beginnings are tough and full of competing standards. Each manufacturer uses and develops his own standards and processes. Only time can determine which one will win. It was so with the charging connectors for mobile phones, today it is so with the connectors on charging cables for electric cars. So let’s have a look at all the charging connectors that we have in the world now.

General overview of the different types of connectors

The charging speed depends on three components. the charging station, which is the source of power, the charging cable and the on-board charger. In this article, we will look at an important part of every charging cable. its connector.

For simplicity, the different types of connectors can be roughly divided according to the region where they are most used. Although this is a simplified statement. AC charging stations usually do not have an integrated charging cable, so the driver carries the cable that fits his car and the problem with the types of connectors is basically eliminated. DC fast charging stations always have a cable attached because of security reasons, the amount of current, cable’s price and weight. so it is necessary to select a station that has the appropriate connector.

connector, types, charging, world

In the following section, we offer a quick overview of the development and a description of the individual connectors.

AC connectors

The first electric cars, such as the General motors EV1, used an inductive connection for their charging where the current was transmitted by electromagnetic induction. However, this method of charging did not prevail because it was not efficient enough in that time. (Today, we can hear suggestions for returning back to inductive charging and Norway is by far the most progressive country in this regard.) The inefficiency created a demand for the design of a conductive connection with the elegant name of SAE J1772-2001. One of the requirements for the connector was establishing a connection with the deck and the infotainment system.

J1772. Type 1

In California, a square plug named J1772 was introduced in 2001, but it was only capable of 6.6 kW, and so in 2008 Yazaki designed a new plug with a power of 19.2 kW, which since 2010 has become the standard for all American vehicles. Yazaki’s design today is the new J1772, which is often called J-plug or Type 1.

Original Avcon connector compliant with specification J1772. Source: https://www.wikiwand.com/en/SAE_J177

Originally, electric cars in Europe also had this type of connector so many older or hybrid cars are still equipped with Type 1, but since it is common for al drivers of electric vehicles to carry around their own cable, there is no problem with charging at any AC station. However, now Type 1 is used mainly in America and Asia. The main disadvantage of this plug is that it allows the use of only one phase and it doesn’t support a built-in automatic locking system.

Mennekes. Type 2

European cars used the Type 1 connector until major European automakers began looking for a new solution that could take advantage of all three phases. In 2003 new specifications IEC 62196 were established based on which the Type 2 mennekes plug was produced and it quickly became the new European standard. Thanks to the fact that both types of plugs (type 1 and 2) use the same J1772 signaling protocol for communication, car manufacturers can make vehicles in the same way and only at the very end they install the type of plug that corresponds to the market where the car will be sold. Passive adapters also exist among these types. Another important advantage of the Type 2 plug is that it supports a built-in automatic locking system.

(The Type 2 plug is called Mennekes, because it was a German company of the same name that developed a design for this plug. The term Mennekes design was often mentioned in the texts, and it started to be used among the general public.)

The Tesla Model S and Model X sold in Europe also have the Type 2 plug (only in a slightly modified version) which they can use for charging at any AC charging station and they also use this connector for the Tesla Supercharger network where they charge using DC.

GB / T standard

In China, under the supervision of the Guobiao Standardization Commission, a GB / T plug was developed, and currently it is the only one that is used. The fact that there are no other types of connectors in the whole country that would compete facilitates the development of the charging infrastructure. It should be noted that China is the country with the densest network of charging stations and has the largest share of electric cars in the world.

At first glance, the connector seems to be the same as Type 2, but the cables inside are arranged in reverse order so they are not compatible.

DC connectors

DC charging allows the car to be charged significantly faster than AC charging. Currently, the most common charging stations are 50 kWh, but 150 kWh stations already appear, and 270 kWh and 350 kWh chargers are emerging, which is reflected in the constant need to develop more efficient connectors.

CCS. Type 1 and Type 2 (Combined Charging System)

CCS, or combined charging system, is a beautifully elegant solution for fast DC charging. These are the original plugs, either Type 1 or Type 2, to which two more pins are added at the bottom. In the case of DC charging, these two lower pins participate in the charging itself and from the upper part only the communication pin and the earth conductor, which provides the reference point for the protection systems, are used. These connectors can withstand power of up to 350 kW.

It is currently the most popular type of DC connector. Type 1 is common in the United States, while Type 2 CCS is used in Europe. The European Parliament’s efforts to allow only CCS 2 and other plugs to be phased out of Europe have not been successful, but this standard is still winning, mainly because the car has only one socket. When using the CHAdeMO connector, the car must always have two sockets.

CCS are not compatible with CHAdeMO and GB / T charging stations because they use different communication protocols, so special adapters are needed and they are not easy to obtain.

CHAdeMO

CHAdeMO is the original DC plug developed by five Japanese automakers that have been trying to promote this plug as a global standard since 2010. It didn’t work out, but even so, the number of chargers with CHAdeMO connectors was rising. From 10,000 in 2015 to 25,600 in 2019 (of which 9,200 are in Europe and 7,600 in Japan).

The European Parliament tried to enforce a directive to make this connector gradually disappear from Europe in favor of CCS. The current wording of this directive states that each fast charging station must have at least a CCS connector. Charging stations can easily have more connectors. However, electric car manufacturers themselves are abandoning CHAdeMO connectors. Currently, only two electric cars with this connector are produced, and one of them, Nissan, is moving to CCS connectors, so it seems that this standard will be common only in Japan and China.

In 2018, the CHAdeMO Association introduced the second version of its connector, which allows you to charge up to 400kW. And it is currently working with China to develop an ultra-fast connector capable of charging up to 900 kW.

GB / T

As with AC charging, China has its own standards for DC charging. GB / T is currently working with CHAdeMO to develop a third generation of connectors that should be capable of transmitting 900 kW.

Tesla

Tesla is, of course, a topic in itself and has different connectors than any other brand, which allows Tesla customers to charge on their own charging stations that cannot be used by any other vehicle.

At the same time, however, Tesla also offers adapters for other types of plugs, so for their vehicles it is not a problem to use the charging stations with a Type 1 or CHAdeMO plug.

In the war for the winning DC plug in Europe, Tesla leaned towards the CCS Type 2 plug in its Model 3.

If you enjoyed this article about connectors and would like to learn more about AC / DC charging or what are the advantages of your own AC charging station, or many other topics, we have prepared a series of articles in the Knowledge Center section.

EV Charging Basics

Learn more about different charging options for electric vehicles (EVs), plus where you can find rebates to help cover purchase and installation costs.

EV Charger Types

EV chargers are classified into three categories: Level 1, Level 2 and direct current (DC) fast chargers.

EV chargers are classified into three categories: Level 1, Level 2 and direct current (DC) fast chargers.

Important differences include:

  • Input voltage. This is how much power a charger requires to operate and is expressed in volts.
  • Power output. This is how much power a charger can generate and is expressed in kilowatts (kW).
  • Charging speed. This is the number of miles added to the EV’s battery per hour of charging and depends on the charger’s power output.
  • Equipment and installation cost. While basic EV chargers are inexpensive and can be plugged into a standard outlet, others have higher upfront equipment and must be installed professionally by an electric vehicle service provider (EVSP).
  • EV power intake. Depending on your EV, the power output pulled from a charger (in kW) may be limited by how much the EV’s battery can withstand. Check your vehicle’s specifications to know which charging level your vehicle can use.

Numerous manufacturers produce EV chargers, with a variety of products, price points, applications and functionality. Because of these differences, it is important to choose an EV charger that fits your intended use and budget.

Direct Current Fast Charging

How fast is DC fast charging?

Depending on the EV, DC fast chargers can currently produce a 10-80% charge for a 300-mile range battery in approximately 20 minutes (~540 miles of electric drive per hour of charging).

What is the input voltage for a DC fast charger?

Currently available DC fast chargers require inputs of at least 480 volts and 100 amps, but newer chargers are capable of up to 1000 volt and 500 amps (up to 360 kW).

How much do DC fast chargers cost?

A CALeVIP Cost Data analysis found that the unit cost per charger for rebate recipients ranged from a minimum of 18,000 to a maximum of 72,500. The mean and median unit cost per charger was 29,135 and 23,000, respectively.

In addition to higher equipment costs, DC fast charger installations require a commercial electrician from the initial planning phase due to the electrical load and wiring requirements.

connector, types, charging, world

Is a DC fast charger the right EV charger for me?

DC fast chargers are the highest-powered EV chargers on the market. They often are used as range extenders along major travel corridors for long-distance trips and in urban environments to support drivers without home charging or very high mileage drivers. At current charging speeds, they are ideal for places where a person would spend 30 minutes to an hour, such as restaurants, recreational areas and shopping centers.

It is important to note that not every EV model is capable of DC fast charging, and therefore, they cannot be used by every EV driver. Further, DC fast chargers have multiple standards for connectors, whereas there is only one common standard for Level 1 and 2 charging (SAE J1772). DC fast chargers have three types of connectors: CHAdeMO, CCS and Tesla, though CCS is increasingly becoming the industry standard.

Level 2 Chargers

How fast is Level 2 charging?

A Level 2 charger can currently produce a full charge for a 300-mile range battery in about 6-8 hours and is perfect for destination and overnight charging.

connector, types, charging, world

What is the input voltage of a Level 2 charger?

What is the power output of a Level 2 charger?

Level 2 chargers are available with a variety of power outputs from 3 kW to 19 kW, which can sometimes be adjusted.

How much do Level 2 chargers cost?

CALeVIP Cost Data show that rebate recipients reported average L2 equipment costs ranging from 685 to 6,626 per connector. The mean and median were 2,976 and 2,884 per connector, respectively.

Is a Level 2 charger the right EV charger for me?

Level 2 chargers are typical solutions for residential and commercial/workplace settings. Most offer higher power output than Level 1 chargers and have additional functionality.

Non-networked vs. networked chargers

In general, Level 2 chargers are distinguished between non-networked chargers and networked chargers.

Networked chargers have advanced capabilities, such as charge scheduling, load management and demand response. They are more common in commercial/workplace settings where payments are required or at multiunit dwellings (MUDs) where the property’s electricity bill is shared by multiple residents.

They may be designed for indoor or outdoor use (e.g., NEMA 3R, NEMA 6P, NEMA 4x rated).

Some models of networked chargers also can limit charging to certain hours, which allows the operator to maximize a time-of-use (TOU) electricity rate structure and only allow charging when electricity is the cheapest (usually sometime between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m.). This type of control also increases the likelihood of participating in utility demand response programs.

Some of the enhanced features of a networked Level 2 charger include remote access/control via Wi-Fi or cellular connection, access control/ability to accept multiple forms of payment, load balancing across multiple chargers and more. Additionally, California will soon begin allowing the use of submeters already embedded within networked chargers to bill electricity use. For more information on submetering, visit the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) website.

Non-networked Level 2 chargers are used both in single-family residences and MUDs. They may be designed for indoor or outdoor use (e.g., NEMA 3R, NEMA 6P, NEMA 4x rated). Non-networked Level 2 chargers are useful for installations at MUDs or commercial sites that are powered by the residents’ or tenants’ subpanels.

In this case, any electricity used by the chargers will be charged to the individual’s electricity bill, thus eliminating the need to separately meter the chargers. Further, when electrical capacity is available, non-networked Level 2 chargers are useful for site hosts that need higher power than Level 1 charging but do not have a large budget.

Type 2 car charger

Welcome to EV101: Electric Vehicle Charging Basics

What Affects Charging Speed?

Your vehicle

There are a lot of variables that affect each vehicle’s charging speed. When a battery is more depleted, the charging speed is typically faster. However, batteries don’t like to charge quickly when they’re too hot or too cold, so charging may be slower in extreme temperatures.

Different vehicle manufacturers design different batteries. And because the battery is usually the single most expensive “thing” inside a vehicle, it’s in everyone’s best interest to maximize the battery’s longevity, health, and safety. As a result, when a vehicle charges, the vehicle decides the power it draws from the charger in a way that maximizes longevity.

The charging system

Different electric vehicles have different capacities for charging speeds; charging stations also have different capacities, and the maximum rate of your charging session is determined by whichever is lower, the capability of the car or the charger. For example, a 50 kW capable EV would not charge any faster at a 350 kW station. Also, it is worth noting that higher capable vehicles can charge at lower capable stations, they are just limited to what the station can provide.

Outside temperature

Electric vehicle batteries don’t like to be too hot or too cold. The charging of a battery generates heat (check your mobile phone when its charging), and the battery management system will protect a battery from overheating, so when the battery gets too hot the battery management system will slow down charging (and if the ambient temperature is high or you’ve been driving your EV for a long time then this might happen earlier as the battery temperature is already elevated).

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How Does the Vehicle Decide Your Charging Rate?

The vehicle’s Battery Management System (BMS — or “brain”) considers all of the factors explained above in order to maximize the longevity of the battery. Is the battery hot right now? Is it cold outside? Is the battery old and deteriorated? How full is the battery? Given all of this information, the vehicle tells the charger the voltage and current it can accept. the product of which determines the charge rate.

When the vehicle starts charging, it may reach (or get close to) the maximum charging rate (i.e. 50 kW). But as the charge continues — and the battery gets hotter and its cells start to fill — the vehicle will slow the charging rate to reduce the strain on the battery. When the battery is about 80% full, the charge rate can slow rapidly, as shown in the example below:

Why Does My Charging Speed Slow Down as I Charge?

To answer that question, we first have to understand the vehicle’s battery. When most people imagine a car battery, they might imagine one big block sitting inside the car. In reality, inside a “battery pack” are hundreds — and often thousands — of smaller “battery cells.” (The Tesla Model S has up to 7,104 battery cells!) As a result, when a battery charges, those thousands of cells are actually what’s being charged.

A helpful analogy might be to imagine sitting in a movie theater. When the theater is empty, it’s easy to find a seat right away. But as the theater fills up, we have to take a few moments to find a seat — and climb over people (without knocking over their popcorn). That’s what happens with battery cells at the molecular level. When the battery cells are nearly empty, it’s easy to “find a seat” to charge. But as the battery cells fill up, it takes more time to find (and navigate) the empty cells. Generally, above 80% full is when it’s hardest for electrons to find a seat in your battery’s movie theater.

NOTE: Your charging speed will slow down throughout the course of your charge. And every vehicle decides that “slow down rate” differently. Every manufacturer determines this in order to keep your vehicle’s battery healthy and increase longevity.

Why Does My Charging Speed Slow Down as I Charge?

To answer that question, we first have to understand the vehicle’s battery. When most people imagine a car battery, they might imagine one big block sitting inside the car. In reality, inside a “battery pack” are hundreds — and often thousands — of smaller “battery cells.” (The Tesla Model S has up to 7,104 battery cells!) As a result, when a battery charges, those thousands of cells are actually what’s being charged.

A helpful analogy might be to imagine sitting in a movie theater. When the theater is empty, it’s easy to find a seat right away. But as the theater fills up, we have to take a few moments to find a seat — and climb over people (without knocking over their popcorn). That’s what happens with battery cells at the molecular level. When the battery cells are nearly empty, it’s easy to “find a seat” to charge. But as the battery cells fill up, it takes more time to find (and navigate) the empty cells. Generally, above 80% full is when it’s hardest for electrons to find a seat in your battery’s movie theater.

NOTE: Your charging speed will slow down throughout the course of your charge. And every vehicle decides that “slow down rate” differently. Every manufacturer determines this in order to keep your vehicle’s battery healthy and increase longevity.

Why Am I Not Getting the Maximum Charge Rate on My Car’s Nameplate?

There are several reasons for this. When a car advertises a maximum charging rate of 50 kW, that doesn’t mean it can consistently charge at that rate.

When a vehicle connects to a charger, a conversation takes place between the charger and the vehicle — and it’s dominated by the vehicle. The charger tells the vehicle both the voltage and current rates it can accept, and the charger provides only what the vehicle can accommodate. As a result, the vehicle manages its battery to provide the longest useful life by not overcharging it. Here are some examples of things that affect your charging speed:

What is a Type 2 charging cable?

A Type 2 charging cable is the European-standard plug-type used by every new electric car. It features a seven-pin connection at both ends, which allows you to easily plug in to every home wallbox, and most public car chargers. The type 2 ev charger cable allows for slower AC charging (up to 43kW), rather than DC Rapid charging, which requires a CCS connection.

Type 2 Charging Cable Application Scenarios

The Type 2 car charging cable allows you to top-up at the slower ‘destination’ chargers you typically find in shopping centres, gyms and town car parks. Tesla cars are the exception, as they use a Type 2 connection to Rapid charge – albeit at Tesla Superchargers only – this is a network of chargers that are only available to Teslas.

Tesla Type 2 Cable

At any standard, free-to-all Type 2 charger (which includes every charging point provider other than the Tesla Supercharger network), a Tesla would charge just as slowly as any other electric car. All pure-electric cars come with a Type 2 socket and cable as standard. All plug-in hybrids have a Type 2 socket, but some manufacturers charge extra for a cable.

Type 2 Charging Cable Expert Expert

As a professional electric vehicle charging equipment manufacturer, AG Electrical can provide you with different electric vehicle charging plugs from type 1 plug to type 2 plug.

Also, we provide OEM/ODM service with the completely supply chain from concept design to MP(Mass Production).

As an experienced team, we are capable of design and manufacture Industrial products with the strict quality control system.

Do not hesitate to contact us if you need premium electric car charging cable type 2.

OEM/ODM service

Related EV Charging Wiki

Detailed introduction to charging cable standard

  • CHAdeMO Plug/Connector
  • DC Charger Coupler Connector
  • EV Portable Charger TYPE2 Mode 2
  • AC EV Charging Cable TYPE2
  • TYPE2 Vehicle to Load (V2L)
  • AC EV Charging Socket TYPE2
  • AC EV Square Charging Socket TYPE2
  • TYPE2-TYPE2 Charging Mode3
  • TYPE2-TYPE1 Charging Mode3
  • TYPE2-GBT Charging Mode3 Cable
  • TYPE2-TYPE1 Adaptor Charging Mode3
  • Type2 T2S socket(Shutter)
  • GB/T EV Charging Cable
  • GB/T Vehicle to Load(V2L)
  • GB/T Portable EV Charger
  • GB/T EV DC Charging Socket
  • GB/T-GB/T Charging Mode3 Cable
  • GB/T EV DC Charging Cable
  • GB/T EV DC TPU Charging Cable
  • GB/T EV AC Charging Socket
  • SAE TYPE 1 Charging Cable
  • SAE EV Portable Charger TYPE 1 Mode 2
  • SAE EV Charging Adapter TYPE 1 to GB/T
  • SAE EV Charging Socket
  • Spiral Charging Cable
  • Combo2 Charging Systems(CCS2)
  • Combo1 Charging Systems(CCS1)
  • IEC AC Dummy Socket
  • Mechanical Lock
  • Electronic Lock
  • SAE AC Dummy Socket
  • GB/T AC Dummy Socket
  • GB/T DC Dummy Socket
  • IEC DC Dummy Socket

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