Chevy volt battery dimensions. Fiber Laser Welding: Advantages, Systems and Applications

Volt Battery: The Ultimate Guide

1.5 Volt batteries are some of the most popular batteries on the market, ranging in size from tiny button/coin cell batteries to large, heavy-duty cylindrical batteries.

Thanks to their popularity, practically all battery brands offer them. 1.5V batteries thus differ in chemistry, size, type, intended use, etc.

Published: January 28, 2023.

V Batteries Chemistries

1.5V batteries come in several different chemistries, as shown in the next comparison chart showing typical AA battery 1.5V chemistries:

Note: AA and other cylindrical batteries are also offered as rechargeable and non-rechargeable 3.0. 3.7V batteries, but they are out of the scope of this article. for more information, feel free to check our AA Batteries. Size, Types, and Equivalents article.

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Next to these chemistries, one also has to mention Silver Oxide, Zinc Air, and Mercury Oxide chemistries, which are used practically only for button/coin cell batteries.

Note: Due to the mercury content, Mercury Oxide batteries are no longer in use.

Zinc Carbon Batteries

Zinc carbon batteries are non-rechargeable batteries, and they are one of the oldest battery chemistries in use.

The nominal voltage is 1.5V, while the cutoff voltage is usually in the 0.8-1.0V range, and it depends on the device being used as well.

Types and Sizes of 1.5V Batteries

1.5-volt batteries are typically button/coin cell batteries and cylindrical batteries.

Button/Coin Cell Batteries

The most popular 1.5V button/coin cell batteries include (batteries are ordered according to the size):

  • Silver Oxide: SR41, SR736, SR736PW, SR736SW, SG3, AG3, 192, 384, 392
  • Alkaline: LR41, LR736, AG3
  • Zinc Air: 312, ZA312, Brown Tab, PR41, 7002ZD
  • Silver Oxide: SR1130W, SR1130SW, SR1130PW, SR1131, SR54, 189, 387, 389, 390
  • Alkaline: LR1130, LR1131, LR54, V10GA, AG10
  • Silver Oxide: SR44W, SR44, SR44SW, 157, 357, 303, SG13, AG13, S76, A76, SR1154
  • Alkaline: LR44, 76A, AG13, LR1154, A76
  • Zinc Air: 675, Blue Tab, ZA675, PR44, 7003ZD

Cylindrical Batteries

The most popular 1.5V cylindrical batteries include (batteries are ordered according to the size):

  • 8.3 x 42.5 mm battery: AAAA, MX2500, Mini, LR8D425, 25A, LR61
  • 10.5 x 44.5 mm battery: AAA, MN2400, MX2400, Micro, LR03, R03
  • 14.5 x 50.5 mm battery: AA, MN1500, MX1500, LR6, R6, 15A, 15D
  • 26.2 x 50.0 mm battery: C, MN1400, MX1400, 343, U11, LR14, R14, 14A, 14D, E93
  • 34.2 x 61.5 mm battery: D, MN1300, MX1300, LR20, R20, 13A, 13D, Type 373, BA-30

Of course, the list is much longer, but these sizes are the most popular cylindrical 1.5V batteries.

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some of the most common Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about 1.5-volt batteries:

Is a 1.5 V battery the same as AA?

No, 1.5V batteries come in various sizes, shapes, and chemistries. Also, AA battery voltage ranges from 1.2 to 3.7V, chemistry dependent.

However, a typical AA battery is a Zinc Carbon or Alkaline battery that features 1.5V.

What is a 1.5-volt battery called?

Numerous batteries feature 1.5V voltage, varying in shape, size, and chemistry.

If unsure, measure your battery and find it on our Home Page.

Is 1.5 V the same as a C battery?

Alkaline and Zinc Carbon C/LR14 battery feature a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts. But, C/LR14 batteries may also have other voltages, depending on their chemistry.

Also, many other batteries may have a nominal voltage of 1.5V.

Are 1.5 V batteries AA or AAA?

Alkaline and Carbon Zinc AA and AAA batteries are 1.5V batteries, but AA and AAA batteries may have a nominal voltage in the 1.2 to 3.7V range.

Are all Triple A batteries 1.5 volts?

Not, not all Triple A (AAA) batteries have 1.5 volts nominal voltage.

How do you know if a battery is AA or AAA?

Read what’s written on the battery.

Or, measure its size; AAA batteries are 10.5 x 44.5 mm batteries, while AA batteries are 14.5 x 50.5 mm in size (diameter x length).

Standardization of Battery Sizes

The importance of the standardization of battery sizes is probably not something you think about every day and is likely something we all take for granted. If the AA batteries in your flashlight die, you expect that if you buy replacements, they will fit and work just like the dead ones. Without battery size standardization, this would not be the case.

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) publishes international standards for all electrical and electronic-related technologies, including batteries. Non-rechargeable batteries fall under the IEC standard 60086, and rechargeable batteries, such as automotive batteries, are standardized according to IEC 60095.

Battery Sizes for Household Electronics

The most common battery sizes for small household electronics are AA and AAA. Both of these batteries are cylindrical batteries with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts. AAA batteries are physically smaller than AA batteries and also typically have about half of the capacity. Remote controls, small flashlights, and similar small electronics requiring minimal power often use AA and AAA batteries.

For larger household electronics, the most common battery size options are C and D. D-size batteries are larger than C-size and have about 50% more capacity as a result. C and D-size batteries are often used in higher power applications such as portable stereos or industrial electronics that need to run for a long time.

The other common household battery size is the E-size battery, more commonly referred to as a 9-volt battery. 9-volt batteries are rectangular and are the most common batteries found in smoke detectors.

Battery Cell Shapes: Cylindrical, button, and prismatic

There are three common battery cell shapes to consider: Button cells, prismatic cells, and cylindrical cells. The different cell shapes come in different sizes and chemistries and are optimized for various applications. Typically, battery cells are connected in series or parallel to make larger batteries. For example, it’s common to construct deep-cycle lithium batteries out of many individual cylindrical lithium battery cells.

Button cells are small round batteries that look like a button and are common in very small electronics that require minimal power. For example, watches, key fobs for a car, hearing aids, and medical devices all use button cell batteries.

Prismatic cells are thin, rectangular battery cells that are becoming obsolete. They are expensive to manufacture and do not have good thermal management, which tends to cause them to have a shorter lifecycle than cylindrical cells. Low-profile devices like phones, tablets, and laptops often use prismatic cells.

Cylindrical cells are the most common cell type. The common household batteries mentioned earlier (AA, AAA, C, and D) are cylindrical cell batteries. Cylindrical cells are the most robust cell type, and when combined in a battery pack, they offer a higher energy density than prismatic cells.

What Are Battery Group Sizes?

In North America, the Battery Council International (BCI) publishes standard group sizes for rechargeable batteries like those found in cars, boats, and RVs. The group size determines the physical dimension constraints of the battery, not the capacity. Typically, a larger battery size results in a higher capacity. However, this is not always true.

There are over 50 different battery group sizes. The chart below shows some of the most common ones. As you can see, the group sizes are designated by a number.

A common mistake is to think that the larger the group number is, the bigger the battery will be. This is not always the case, either. For example, a group 31 battery is larger than a group 51 battery.

Battery Sizes for Cars, RVs, Boats, and Golf Carts

There is no single group size that all cars, RVs, boats, or golf carts use. Vehicle manufacturers will recommend or specify a group size based on the needs of that particular vehicle.

However, the most common group sizes for passenger vehicles are 24, 27, 34, 35, 48, 49, 65, and 78. Many RVs and boats will use similar group sizes as passenger vehicles. However, it is common for large RVs, boats, and trucks to use an 8D group size battery. 8D batteries are larger and have a much higher capacity.

Chemistry, Voltages, Amps, Amp-Hours


There are four main battery chemistries that the majority of batteries fall within: Lead-acid, Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd), Nickel-metal Hydride, and Lithium-ion. Within these four main chemistries, there are multiple sub-chemistries. For example, there are many different types of lithium batteries with varying applications ideal for each.

The key difference in the four main chemistries is energy density. The graph below shows that lithium batteries have the highest energy density, followed by Ni-MH, Ni-Cd, and finally, lead-acid. A higher energy density means that more energy can be stored in a smaller and lighter battery.

Energy density is not the only factor in choosing the best battery chemistry for your application. The different chemistries have trade-offs as well. For example, lead-acid batteries make better starting batteries than lithium batteries because they can provide extremely high cold-cranking amps (short burst of high current to start your car), whereas lithium batteries cannot.


Not only do batteries come in different physical sizes, but they also have varying voltages. Battery voltages can range from 1.5 volts in AA and AAA batteries to 36 volts for some deep-cycle batteries.

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A good rule of thumb is that the higher the power requirement is for an application, the larger the battery voltage tends to be. The reason for this is that power is equal to the product of voltage and current ( voltage (volts) X current (amps) = power (watts) ). In high power applications, having a higher voltage reduces the current, allowing smaller cabling to be used.

Amps Amp-Hours

The final and possibly most important factor in battery sizing is the capacity of the battery. We measure battery capacity in amp-hours (Ah), which is the product of multiplying amps by hours.

→ Suggested Reading: What Are Amps and Amp-Hours?

For example, a battery with a 100 Ah capacity can deliver approximately one amp for 100 hours, or two amps for 50 hours, or four amps for 25 hours, and so on. The capacity rating is an approximation and is not exact.

Battle Born Batteries Sizes Explained

Here at Battle Born Batteries, we offer various battery sizes of lithium deep-cycle batteries in varying form factors, voltages, and capacities.

12V and 24V Batteries

The most common voltage for deep-cycle batteries is 12 volts. Most of the batteries that Battle Born offers are 12-volts; however, we also offer a 24-volt, 50 Ah option.

Deep Cycle Replacement

The most commonly purchased Battle Born battery is the 100 Ah deep cycle drop-in replacement. The 100 Ah battery is a drop-in replacement for group 27 and group 31 lead-acid batteries.


We also offer our 100 Ah battery in a GC2 form factor for golf cart applications. GC2 form factor batteries are typically 6 volts. However, most golf carts run on 24 or 48 volts, so you often need to wire up to eight 6-volt batteries in series. Since our GC2 battery is 12 volts, you need half as many batteries in your golf cart, saving you weight and space.

270Ah Lithium Batteries

We offer two form factors of 270 Ah capacity lithium batteries for applications requiring a lot of power.

8D Battery

The first option is a 270 Ah, 12-volt 8D drop-in replacement. This lithium battery is about 50 pounds lighter than a standard lead-acid 8D battery and packs almost double the capacity.

GC3 Battery

We’re changing the game with this 12V LiFePO4 deep cycle battery. The BBGC3 is a 270Ah 12V LiFePO4 deep cycle battery in a unique battery case and shape that changes the way batteries can be placed inside RVs.

Rather than adhering to a traditional battery size that needs to fit in a battery box to allow for ventilation from off-gassing, we have created a battery that can be placed anywhere.

50Ah Lithium Batteries

Lastly, we offer two 50 Ah batteries. The first is a 24-volt, 50 Ah battery that is a drop-in replacement for group 27 and 31 batteries. While it only has a 50Ah capacity, the watt-hour capacity is the same as our 100 Ah, 12-volt batteries.

Additionally, for smaller applications that don’t require a ton of power, we have a 50 Ah, 12-volt lithium battery available. The great thing about this battery is that it weighs less than 18 pounds, so you can take it just about anywhere!

Choosing the Right Size for Your System

Choosing the right battery size for your system and application is about more than just getting the biggest battery you can find and afford. There are many different form factors, voltages, and capacities available.

Before jumping in and buy a new battery, determine what your power needs are, how much space you have available, and your budget. Whatever your combination of needs is, there is likely a perfect battery size for you. If you need help determining your best options, please reach out to our team of experts here at Battle Born. We’re always happy to help!

Chevy Volt

Check the official documentation for items listed here to be sure and in case of changes.

The Chevrolet Volt is the first plug-in hybrid car made in large quantities and sold in the United States. Some call the Chevy Volt an electric hybrid since its main source of power for most driving is electric. The Prius is called a gas-electric hybrid. Here is how I think that hybrids should be categorized with regard to battery energy.:

Of course, if the battery is rechargeable, as is the case for the Chevy Volt, Plug-In should be added in front of the hybrid-type name.

Chevrolet calls the Chevy Volt an Extended Range Electric Car, which is slightly misleading.

The Chevy Volt has been selected by as the Green Car of the year for 2011.

EPA Ratings

A planetary gear set (also called an epicycle gear set) is used to connect the battery/electric-motor, the gasoline-engine/generator and the wheels:

C1, C2 C3 are automatic clutches.

The outer large gear is the ring gear, which connects to the chassis through clutch C1, to the small motor/generator through clutch C2 or to the engine motor/generator through clutches C2 C3.

Mode 1: Low-speed EV (engine off)

The outer ring gear is clutched to the chassis. The battery powers the large traction motor which passes power to the center carrier gear set and then on to the wheels through the reduction gears.

Mode 2: High-speed EV (engine off)

Both the large traction motor, through the inner sun gear, and the small motor, through the outer ring gear, are powered by the battery, which power is passed to the center carrier gear set and then on to the wheels through the reduction gears.

Mode 3: Low-speed series hybrid (engine on)

The outer ring gear is clutched to the chassis. The engine drives the small motor/generator to charge the battery, which powers the large traction motor, which passes the power on to the inner sun gear and then on to the center carrier gear set and on to the wheels through the reduction gears.

Mode 4: High-speed series/parallel hybrid (engine on)

The engine both powers the wheels through the outer ring gear and on to the center carrier gear set and powers the motor/generator to charge the battery. The battery powers the traction motor and on to the inner sun gear and then to the wheels through the reduction gears.

This is similar to the Prius series/parallel Hybrid Synergy Drive. The connections to the three components of the planetary gear set are different, as shown below.

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Comparison with Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive

The Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive used in the Prius also uses a planetary gear set, but with a different way the components are connected:

ICE = internal combustion engine (connected to the center carrier gear set), MG1 = small generator/motor (connected to the inner sun gear) and MG2 = large motor/generator; the wheels and MG2 are both connected to the outer ring gear (R).

An operating difference between the Prius and the Volt series/parallel hybrids is that the Volt cannot drive the wheels solely by the ICE, whereas the Prius can.

The big advantages of the Volt over the Prius are:

A 2005-2009 Prius can be converted to a plug-in Prius:

  • Prius Owners Group: Conversion Summary
  • A123/Hymotion Prius (Virginia installer: Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville)(Author’s car)
  • EEtrex Prius (Virginia installer: Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville)
  • Plug-In Conversions Prius (upgrade)
  • Plug-In Supply Prius
  • Enginer Hybrid to PHEV Upgrade
  • Comparison of Prius Plug-In to Chevy Volt
  • Another comparison of Prius Plug-In and Volt

Energy Cells vs. Power Cells: What is the Difference?

Image courtesy of : FreeingEnergy

Batteries can be optimized to store more energy (energy cells) or deliver more power (power cells). Generally, it makes more sense to use energy cells in larger batteries and power cells in smaller ones. As the battery gets larger, the total power is split between a higher number of cells, and each cell needs to deliver less power.

Hybrid cars, for example, have a smaller battery and often require power cells. Power cells allow keeping the battery small while meeting power needs.

Power cells are not limited to smaller batteries. They are also used in high-performance electric vehicles such as Formula E. In fact, they are well adapted to any vehicle with a low autonomy and a high-power demand.

Supercapacitors and Ultracapacitors to Boost Power

Supercapacitors and ultracapacitors are similar to batteries in that they are energy storage systems, but they’re not quite the same thing. While batteries use chemical reactions to store energy, ultracapacitors store an electrostatic charge.

Ultracapacitors have a high power throughput and are used in conjunction with batteries to boost power. They can deliver a lot of power in a short time, and they can do it hundreds of thousands of times without significant degradation.

Ultracapacitors have a very low energy density, so they do not contribute to the battery’s range. But when they are mixed in a lithium-ion battery pack, they manage power and energy demands in a very good manner. Ultracapacitors are there for high power surges. Batteries are there for high autonomy.

Due to the importance of ultracapacitors for batteries, Tesla bought Maxwell Technologies in 2019, a huge company manufacturing ultracapacitors, to complement their research being done on batteries.

Watch the following video to get a wider perspective on supercapacitors.

Future EV Battery Cell Types

New types of battery cells are currently being developed for electric vehicles, taking EVs to new levels in terms of power, range, production costs, and so on.

One of the most promising technologies is the solid-state battery. The technology is similar to lithium-ion batteries, but it features solid electrolyte instead of liquid. Solid-state batteries will provide faster charges, more power, and lower production costs. They are expected to be ready for the market around 2030.

Liquid air battery technology, another development that uses air to store energy, is very promising as well but is far from being ready due to its short life cycle. Mohammad Asadi, Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, explains the implications of this technology for electric vehicles:

Imagine you have an electrical vehicle today that can run just 300 miles on a single charge. If you replace that battery with our technology, the lithium-air battery technology, you can drive up to 1,500 to 2,000 miles–increasing your driving range five to six times with the same weight and the same volume

Breakthrough in Lithium-air Batteries Could Help Put Electric Vehicles On The Road


The electrification of the automotive industry is forcing manufacturers to evolve quickly and adopt new technologies they may not fully understand yet. Cells need to be assembled into battery modules and/or packs. The high degree of precision that they demand means many traditional technologies may no longer be viable.

If you want to discuss your EV battery project, contact our experts today. They can help you understand the implications of your project and see how laser technology can help.

Stéphane Melançon

Technical expert and consultant in batteries and electrical propulsion systems, Stéphane holds a Physics degree with specializations in Photonics, Optics, Electronics, Robotics, and Acoustics. Invested in the EV transformation, he has designed industrial battery packs for electrical bikes. In his free time, he runs a YouTube channel on everything electrical.

Where Are the Batteries Placed on Electric Cars?

Electric car batteries are placed underneath the car’s floor. Of course, their auxiliary batteries are usually located elsewhere, like in the trunk. The auxiliary battery is the same 12-volt battery found in gas-powered cars (that’s right, all cars need the 12-volt battery).

Placing batteries underneath the car’s floor between both pairs of wheels helps with EV balance.

This is because their center of gravity is lower. EV batteries are also pretty heavy and this weight helps ensure that the cars have enough stamina on the road.

Instead of an empty cargo and a hood full of engine components, their most weighty component sits in the middle. It also means EVs are less likely to tumble in an accident. A lower center of gravity also means you get better handling while you drive.

How Much Do the Batteries Weigh?

Many EV batteries weigh over 1000 pounds. Also, the batteries are so heavy, they usually weigh about 20 to 25% of the total car weight (curb weight).

What’s even mind-blowing is that electric cars weigh more than gas-powered cars.

This can help you understand just how heavy their batteries are. It also sheds more light on some of the most fundamental EV concepts. No one likes a car that’s too heavy and more battery power means little if it’s too heavy.

We’d explain weight and power soon.

However, for now, remember that EV battery weight plays an important role in vehicle movement. This is also why EV manufacturers prefer to use battery cells that weigh less and provide more power.

We explained EV battery weights in more detail here.

What Is the Size of the Battery in Terms of Power Output?

By now, we’ve already covered some cases of EV batteries and their power outputs. So you already have a pretty decent idea of battery sizes across models. We can consider an EV with a 65-kWh battery as average.

Here’s a table containing cars and their battery sizes. We began with the really large ones.

Note that usable battery capacity is often used interchangeably with the total capacity of EVs. However, they’re quite different.

Usable capacity is always slightly lower than the total capacity in any EV. It is usually about 95 to 99% of the total capacity. These extra kilowatt-hours are there as a safety measure to ensure you don’t overcharge or drain your battery.

So, if you see different battery capacities for a single product, it’s likely the usable and total capacities.

Also, if you recall, we mentioned that larger vehicles usually have more powerful batteries. There’s a very good reason for this. We can analogize EV battery outputs to horsepower in gas-powered cars.

A bigger battery doesn’t always mean a longer range unless overall vehicle weight is kept at a minimum. Hence, a large battery may take a large EV the same distance a small battery would take a small one.

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