BU-409: Charging Lithium-ion. 3v battery charger

BU-409: Charging Lithium-ion

Charging and discharging batteries is a chemical reaction, but Li-ion is claimed to be the exception. Battery scientists talk about energies flowing in and out of the battery as part of ion movement between anode and cathode. This claim carries merits but if the scientists were totally right, then the battery would live forever. They blame capacity fade on ions getting trapped, but as with all battery systems, internal corrosion and other degenerative effects also known as parasitic reactions on the electrolyte and electrodes still play a role. (See BU-808b: What causes Li-ion to die?)

The Li-ion charger is a voltage-limiting device that has similarities to the lead acid system. The differences with Li-ion lie in a higher voltage per cell, tighter voltage tolerances and the absence of trickle or float charge at full charge. While lead acid offers some flexibility in terms of voltage cut off, manufacturers of Li-ion cells are very strict on the correct setting because Li-ion cannot accept overcharge. The so-called miracle charger that promises to prolong battery life and gain extra capacity with pulses and other gimmicks does not exist. Li-ion is a “clean” system and only takes what it can absorb.

Charging Cobalt-blended Li-ion

Li-ion with the traditional cathode materials of cobalt, nickel, manganese and aluminum typically charge to 4.20V/cell. The tolerance is /–50mV/cell. Some nickel-based varieties charge to 4.10V/cell; high capacity Li-ion may go to 4.30V/cell and higher. Boosting the voltage increases capacity, but going beyond specification stresses the battery and compromises safety. Protection circuits built into the pack do not allow exceeding the set voltage.

Figure 1 shows the voltage and current signature as lithium-ion passes through the stages for constant current and topping charge. Full charge is reached when the current decreases to between 3 and 5 percent of the Ah rating.

Li-ion is fully charged when the current drops to a set level. In lieu of trickle charge, some chargers apply a topping charge when the voltage drops.

The advised charge rate of an Energy Cell is between 0.5C and 1C; the complete charge time is about 2–3 hours. Manufacturers of these cells recommend charging at 0.8C or less to prolong battery life; however, most Power Cells can take a higher charge C-rate with little stress. Charge efficiency is about 99 percent and the cell remains cool during charge.

Some Li-ion packs may experience a temperature rise of about 5ºC (9ºF) when reaching full charge. This could be due to the protection circuit and/or elevated internal resistance. Discontinue using the battery or charger if the temperature rises more than 10ºC (18ºF) under moderate charging speeds.

Full charge occurs when the battery reaches the voltage threshold and the current drops to 3 percent of the rated current. A battery is also considered fully charged if the current levels off and cannot go down further. Elevated self-discharge might be the cause of this condition.

Increasing the charge current does not hasten the full-charge state by much. Although the battery reaches the voltage peak quicker, the saturation charge will take longer accordingly. With higher current, Stage 1 is shorter but the saturation during Stage 2 will take longer. A high current charge will, however, quickly fill the battery to about 70 percent.

Li-ion does not need to be fully charged as is the case with lead acid, nor is it desirable to do so. In fact, it is better not to fully charge because a high voltage stresses the battery. Choosing a lower voltage threshold or eliminating the saturation charge altogether, prolongs battery life but this reduces the runtime. Chargers for consumer products go for maximum capacity and cannot be adjusted; extended service life is perceived less important.

Some lower-cost consumer chargers may use the simplified “charge-and-run” method that charges a lithium-ion battery in one hour or less without going to the Stage 2 saturation charge. “Ready” appears when the battery reaches the voltage threshold at Stage 1. State-of-charge (SoC) at this point is about 85 percent, a level that may be sufficient for many users.

Certain industrial chargers set the charge voltage threshold lower on purpose to prolong battery life. Table 2 illustrates the estimated capacities when charged to different voltage thresholds with and without saturation charge. (See also BU-808: How to Prolong Lithium-based Batteries)

Adding full saturation at the set voltage boosts the capacity by about 10 percent but adds stress due to high voltage.

When the battery is first put on charge, the voltage shoots up quickly. This behavior can be compared to lifting a weight with a rubber Band, causing a lag. The capacity will eventually catch up when the battery is almost fully charged (Figure 3). This charge characteristic is typical of all batteries. The higher the charge current is, the larger the rubber-Band effect will be. Cold temperatures or charging a cell with high internal resistance amplifies the effect.

The capacity trails the charge voltage like lifting a heavy weight with a rubber Band.

Estimating SoC by reading the voltage of a charging battery is impractical; measuring the open circuit voltage (OCV) after the battery has rested for a few hours is a better indicator. As with all batteries, temperature affects the OCV, so does the active material of Li-ion. SoC of smartphones, laptops and other devices is estimated by coulomb counting. (See BU-903: How to Measure State-of-charge)

Li-ion cannot absorb overcharge. When fully charged, the charge current must be cut off. A continuous trickle charge would cause plating of metallic lithium and compromise safety. To minimize stress, keep the lithium-ion battery at the peak cut-off as short as possible.

Once the charge is terminated, the battery voltage begins to drop. This eases the voltage stress. Over time, the open circuit voltage will settle to between 3.70V and 3.90V/cell. Note that a Li-ion battery that has received a fully saturated charge will keep the voltage elevated for a longer than one that has not received a saturation charge.

When lithium-ion batteries must be left in the charger for operational readiness, some chargers apply a brief topping charge to compensate for the small self-discharge the battery and its protective circuit consume. The charger may kick in when the open circuit voltage drops to 4.05V/cell and turn off again at 4.20V/cell. Chargers made for operational readiness, or standby mode, often let the battery voltage drop to 4.00V/cell and recharge to only 4.05V/cell instead of the full 4.20V/cell. This reduces voltage-related stress and prolongs battery life.

Some portable devices sit in a charge cradle in the ON position. The current drawn through the device is called the parasitic load and can distort the charge cycle. Battery manufacturers advise against parasitic loads while charging because they induce mini-cycles. This cannot always be avoided and a laptop connected to the AC main is such a case. The battery might be charged to 4.20V/cell and then discharged by the device. The stress level on the battery is high because the cycles occur at the high-voltage threshold, often also at elevated temperature.

A portable device should be turned off during charge. This allows the battery to reach the set voltage threshold and current saturation point unhindered. A parasitic load confuses the charger by depressing the battery voltage and preventing the current in the saturation stage to drop low enough by drawing a leakage current. A battery may be fully charged, but the prevailing conditions will prompt a continued charge, causing stress.

Charging Non-cobalt-blended Li-ion

While the traditional lithium-ion has a nominal cell voltage of 3.60V, Li-phosphate (LiFePO) makes an exception with a nominal cell voltage of 3.20V and charging to 3.65V. Relatively new is the Li-titanate (LTO) with a nominal cell voltage of 2.40V and charging to 2.85V. (See BU-205: Types of Lithium-ion)

Chargers for these non cobalt-blended Li-ions are not compatible with regular 3.60-volt Li-ion. Provision must be made to identify the systems and provide the correct voltage charging. A 3.60-volt lithium battery in a charger designed for Li-phosphate would not receive sufficient charge; a Li-phosphate in a regular charger would cause overcharge.

Overcharging Lithium-ion

Lithium-ion operates safely within the designated operating voltages; however, the battery becomes unstable if inadvertently charged to a higher than specified voltage. Prolonged charging above 4.30V on a Li-ion designed for 4.20V/cell will plate metallic lithium on the anode. The cathode material becomes an oxidizing agent, loses stability and produces carbon dioxide (CO2). The cell pressure rises and if the charge is allowed to continue, the current interrupt device (CID) responsible for cell safety disconnects at 1,000–1,380kPa (145–200psi). Should the pressure rise further, the safety membrane on some Li-ion bursts open at about 3,450kPa (500psi) and the cell might eventually vent with flame. (See BU-304b: Making Lithium-ion Safe)

Venting with flame is connected with elevated temperature. A fully charged battery has a lower thermal runaway temperature and will vent sooner than one that is partially charged. All lithium-based batteries are safer at a lower charge, and this is why authorities will mandate air shipment of Li-ion at 30 percent state-of-charge rather than at full charge. (See BU-704a: Shipping Lithium-based Batteries by Air)

The threshold for Li-cobalt at full charge is 130–150ºC (266–302ºF); nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) is 170–180ºC (338–356ºF) and Li-manganese is about 250ºC (482ºF). Li-phosphate enjoys similar and better temperature stabilities than manganese. (See also BU-304a: Safety Concerns with Li-ion and BU-304b: Making Lithium-ion Safe)

Lithium-ion is not the only battery that poses a safety hazard if overcharged. Lead- and nickel-based batteries are also known to melt down and cause fire if improperly handled. Properly designed charging equipment is paramount for all battery systems and temperature sensing is a reliable watchman.

Summary

Charging lithium-ion batteries is simpler than nickel-based systems. The charge circuit is straight forward; voltage and current limitations are easier to accommodate than analyzing complex voltage signatures, which change as the battery ages. The charge process can be intermittent, and Li-ion does not need saturation as is the case with lead acid. This offers a major advantage for renewable energy storage such as a solar panel and wind turbine, which cannot always fully charge the battery. The absence of trickle charge further simplifies the charger. Equalizing charger, as is required with lead acid, is not necessary with Li-ion.

Consumer and most industrial Li-ion chargers charge the battery fully. They do not offer adjustable end-of-charge voltages that would prolong the service life of Li-ion by lowering the end charge voltage and accepting a shorter runtime. Device manufacturers fear that such an option would complicate the charger. Exceptions are electric vehicles and satellites that avoid full charge to achieve long service life.

Simple Guidelines for Charging Lithium-based Batteries

  • Turn off the device or disconnect the load on charge to allow the current to drop unhindered during saturation. A parasitic load confuses the charger.
  • Charge at a moderate temperature. Do not charge at freezing temperature. (See BU-410: Charging at High and Low Temperatures)
  • Lithium-ion does not need to be fully charged; a partial charge is better.
  • Not all chargers apply a full topping charge and the battery may not be fully charged when the “ready” signal appears; a 100 percent charge on a fuel gauge may be a lie.
  • Discontinue using charger and/or battery if the battery gets excessively warm.
  • Apply some charge to an empty battery before storing (40–50 percent SoC is ideal). (See BU-702: How to Store Batteries.)

References

[1] Courtesy of Cadex

The material on Battery University is based on the indispensable new 4th edition of Batteries in a Portable World. A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for Non-Engineers which is available for order through Amazon.com.

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charger socket on my Google Mobile has expanded and not retaining charger plug which keeps dropping off, can I replace Mobile socket ?

I need a tutor help for lifepo4 Plz share contact no

I am working on a way to recharge the batteries in a transponder I know the base voltage the trouble is that I will need to charge at 0.99 volts to actively charge the battery but not activate the transponder now as we know most chargers charge at at least 1.1 volts using my calculation I will need 1 15000 mic capacitor and 3 resistors the value on ly I know what do I have to look for in fall rate and could I require the transponders permission to do this type of thing

This is a very good website which concerns on how to maintain any kind of battery.

What a wonderful, informative write up! Great site folks. Thanks.

This excellent article describes that dangerous overcharging is likely if we charge a 3.7V lithium ion cell at 4.2V and forget. in the constant voltage phase. to switch off charging after the current has dropped to one tenth of the initial value. But will this overcharging be a risk at all charging voltages all the way down to the minimum voltage that can move ions within the battery (around 3.4V, I guess). Put differently, is there a voltage between the minimum (3.4V?) and 4.2V at which it is safe to simply let the constant voltage phase run forever?

If such a lower safe voltage does not exist, how long would it take before charging at, say, 3.9V would start to cause trouble? Hours, days, weeks?

I’m asking because I have a setup that can store energy from solar panels in a lithium ion battery and where it would be ideal to just cap the charging voltage of each cell at 3.9V in place of introducing a real charger.

There is a lithium battery in my wifes battery box. It is 12 v for her mobility scooter. Apart from the word, lithium it gives no further details. She has a charger but that is for her secong battery that is a lead acid one. I believe its not suitable a charger for lithium’s. Is there a way to tell which lithium type? Also what would be a typican current flow when charging the lithium battery and would the voltage by ok at 4 volts? Thank you.

First thanks for the very useful information which is based on practical tests, very trusty and thus helpful for me. One use case that often occours for my lithium devices are short charge disruptions (miliseconds to secons). What are the shortlong term impacts for lithium batteries considering the lifetime of the battery? (some evidence-based explanation similarly like figure 6 in bu-808-how-to-prolong-lithium-based-batteries would be very helpful). Thanks

Lead acid batteries cannot take a high voltage when charging like LiPoFe can when charging. Your motorcycle alternator charging system made for lead acid batteries and cannot overcharge your new LiPo battery unless the bike was left running for 24-48 hours strait. Even then there is a float charge where the battery will stop charging at the highest point, this is installed on the alternator and is set for a 12v battery and cannot be changed, or in some cases the battery itself will have a float limit installed. In short, a LiPoFe battery can take more charge faster than a lead acid battery can, so any charging system that will charge lead acid, will be like a trickle charger for the LiPoFe battery and will not harm the LiPoFe battery at all. As long as the lithium battery and lead acid charger are both rated for 12V.

A lithium battery charger will damage a lead acid battery by overcharging it with high voltage. But not the other way around.

What about short charge disruptions (1-10seconds), do they damage the battery lifetime? According to Figure6 in your article https://batteryuniversity.com/article/bu-808-how-to-prolong-lithium-based-batteries short SoC bandwiths are also not benefical as the battery delivers less power units in the end, but i dont know if short disruption count as cycles.

Lithium iron phosphate formulation need please guide

I purchased one camera F65 from gowda movies with which I received two packs of batteries lithium ion and a charger from power india input is

Given the complexity of battery charging across lead acid/ NIMH/ NIcad/ Li, how can they sell me an Li 12v battery for my motorcycle which originally came in 2004 with lead acid battery? Where’s the regulation of current? It has to be in the battery, right?

Hello, is it true that a cell cannot charge to a higher voltage than the voltage available at the output of the charger? If the charger presents 4.2 V, how can the cell charge to a voltage higher than 4.2 V? Thx

dear sir i have bought a oukitel wp15 phone and i am asking what is the best way to charge the battery lithium-ion polymer in order to let the battery lives long and prevent the damage for it should i charge it from 65% to 75% is that the best way ithank you in advance

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Any info on how this applies to the various adaptive charging protocols in Li-ion devices like smartphones (I.e. Qualcomm’s Quick Charge)? I know the power supply can deliver a higher voltage to the phone, but how is that then fed to the battery? Let’s say you have 9V/2A going to the phone from the power supply. Is the battery then being fed a 9V input voltage, or is the phone’s charging circuit stepping it down to a typical input voltage with a boost in amperage?

I have overcharged a Samsung INR18650-25R (18650 Li-Ion LiNiMnCoO2 2500 mAh / 10C) to 4.28V. I had 2 of these cells charging in serie and a bad contact has caused one to reach 4.28V. When the bad contact was suddenly resolved the charger has detected the 4.28V voltage on one cell through the balance port and has stopped the charge (I was nearby so I have heard the charger alarm immediately). My DMM has then confirmed the 4.28V voltage on one cell, and this cell wasn’t hot by touching with the hand. After 45min (reading here to find some infos and preparing a discharge procedure) this cell voltage was down below 4.22V, and the cell is now discharging at 200mA to reach 4.11V (to match the other cell, as I use both combined in an electronic cigarette). Should I now consider this cell unsafe and replace it ? (especially since I use it in a device I hold in my hand and near my mouth/head/eye).

It is suggested that Lithium-Ion batteries be stored at a 50% state of charge. How do I know what this is? I have a voltmeter and can measure voltage but then what? I have a 80v lawnmower. Is 50% charge 75v, 70v. 60v? Any suggestions appreciated.

Hi, How can I calculate the charge time of the last 16% of the total capacity of a typical lithium battery to give a SOC = 100%? My charger is Bosch’s 6 A and the output voltage is 36 V, or 216 W. Thanks Best regards

Is it possible to create a ‘battery’ connector with a cigarette lighter plug or car battery clamps to power a battery powered impact wrench? Perhaps that would be an idea for a product. It would be great to be able to use your model as an emergency tool for autos and trucks without the problems associated with storing a battery in those conditions.

If I want to charge my L-ion cells to 80%, would it be better (from the point of view of cell longevity) to charge to 4.1V per cell without saturation, or would it be better to charge to 4.0V per cell with full saturation?

Hi Battery University, I’m finishing up building a Robotic car with Arduino smarts. Have dg01d mini gear box servo motors powered by 4.5vdc. I would like to know: 1) The options for the type of batteries to use to power 3-4 servo motors. 2) The number of batteries needed to power 3. servos. And options for 3) Charging. The charging power source will be 120vac but not sure if solar can be used. Fast charging time might be useful. Joe M

@ TERENCE MORRIS, It sounds like you either have defective batteries, or you purchased a 3rd party battery. I’m assuming, being the Smart man you are, that you DIDNT: Store the batteries for extended periods of time, Frequently keep batteries in a low/high state of charge (20%/80%) Allow excessive temperatures (90F/100F) or Allow them to drop to zero, or even below 20%. That the Batteries are relatively new (only a handful of charges) The problem with 3rd party, is that they used inferior chemicals/parts/ production quality. Or, it could have been a used battery, which was relabeled. If you purchased a genuine OEM battery, but did not do so through a reputable seller (Think ebay/Amazon 3rd party sellers), Then, there’s a good chance (almost guaranteed) you received a 3rd party inferior battery. A non-scientific way to test this, is to weigh your original OEM battery in grams, and compare it the weight of the ones you’re currently using. 3rd Party are commonly significantly lighter than OEM There’s a reason why 4 eBay Genuine OEM smartphone batteries are so cheap, compared to actual OEM. They’re also MUCH lighter than OEM. These also have a tendency for the phones to shut off at 40-50%, and have to use 3 to get through the day VS 1 OEM only using up 40-60% capacity, during the day. If you have any electrical skills, you can test the batteries with a multimeter, using tests frequently found on google. You need to purchase new batteries. Make sure they’re OEM, AND sold by a reputable seller (ie. Amazon warehouse, not AMZN 3rd party sellers) Cheers, Jimmy

Hello, thanks for all this webpage information, it is really amazing Im in a project that will use a 3,7 Lipo battery with around 100mA. My device will consume just few microamps in a range of 5 to 10. My need is to extend the device battery life as much as possible and i will use a small solar cell. This solar cell will be also in a placement with not so many light that it will just give me around 2uA. My question and big dubt is if, with such small solar cell output current i will be even able to start to charge the battery. Hope someone can help me thanks in advanced!

I would like to know, how do I develop a security charger that cuts off power at the time the phone is in use.

ANTIQUE ELECTRIC CAR I own a 1919 Milburn Electric car and would like to purchase lithium LIFePO4 batteries instead of the using the original lead acid batteries. The motor is a 76 volt 33amp DC GE motor from the era. The original system voltage was 84 volts (42 cells in 2 modules or 21 cells each) The manual controller with 12 brass contact fingers is organized as follows : “gear” 1 slowest speed, wheels beginning to turn, most ‘torque’ the motor is energized at 42 volts with the 2 modules in parallel and a resistor in place “Gear” 2 slightly faster and ‘torque’ still required to gain speed The motor is energized at 42 volts with the 2 modules in parallel and less resistance “Gear” 3 medium speed The motor is energized at 84 voltswith the 2 modules in series and even less resistance “Gear” 4 high speed least amount of ‘torque’ The motor is energized at 84 volts with the 2 modules in series and no resistors In “off” mode the lead acid cells were placed in series and the charger provided 84 volts. I have been talking to a lithium cell supplier who is willing to supply sufficient LIFePO4 120amp cells in 2 seperate and equal modules to provide nominally 42 volts each and a BMS for each These modules are recommended to be wired in series only for 84 volts and that they stay that way He does not recommend that they be connected alternately in parallel for 42 volts 240 amps. I am assuming that there is a concern that the 2 lithium ion modules will become out of balance with each other and risk fire and explosion A consistent 84 volt system will not work in this car Any suggestions that would lead to successful usage of lithium cells in 2 equal but separate 42 volt modules? Thank you

I have two new 2600mAh camera batteries that I’m unable to charge properly after only a handful of charge cycles. The weird thing is when they are fully discharged the charger reports them as 90% charged. After charging to100% I only get around 5 minutes use from them whereas new they gave me around an hour (I use them to power a 7 camera monitor). I checked with a voltage meter and they definitely have zero voltage output when discharged. I doubt the charger is faulty as I have two identical chargers and both give 90% percentage readouts when the batteries are definitely flat. What is going on?

Hello, I have a LiFePo4 battery for an EV. I want to extend its life as much as possible. What would be the optimal charging time? (made of 2,5 Ah 3,3 V cells). Need to use 80% DOD. Thank You!

Should I use PWM Solar Charge controller to charge Li-ion Battery. I think that Spike of PWM can cause fire or burn Li-ion Battery. Please confirm.

can this lithium battery be recharged? label on battery says GEBC Lithium Battery, BATT-D103-4, REF:A340301 10.8V 19Ah, ASM by GE Battery, China 33/15

Q: David Maxfield wrote: My Bosch EBike charger has failed and the replacement is quite expensive.Is it ok to just source an alternative cheaper brand of charger as long as the output voltage and current are the same ? A: That should be ok because the electronics in the battery pack will balance the pack and cut off the charge current when the battery is full Be aware that the original charger may have more than 2 connections ( and.) that may have an effect on the charging process To be 100% safe you should use the recommended charger

My Bosch EBike charger has failed and the replacement is quite expensive.Is it ok to just source an alternative cheaper brand of charger as long as the output voltage and current are the same ?

illumiin wrote: I have a question! I’m using iPhone and i only charge my phone by Laptop via USB host. But when i check my phone by software such as “3utools” or similar…, i realize my phone (battery) has max voltage’s 4.47V when max capacity. I think it’s a Li-ion battery type, and at 4.2V, my battery only has 80% capacity! Is that normal. Answer: When charging with USB and a cable that comes with your phone or is suitable for your phone your phone will charge until it reaches its maximum capacity The electronics inside the phone and battery will prevent overcharging Software may not be accurate when measuring voltages from the battery When connected to computer USB or wall charger your phone will always charge until it’s full no matter what the maximum voltage of your battery is

michael porporo wrote: do batteries need to be completely depleted before charging? Answer: No, li-ion batteries can be charged at any time, they don’t have to be empty

Wildeman Victor wrote: What will happen with my Li Lion 18650 if i charge them only with cv and the current fluctates every secound, like charging on a Solar cell? Lifetime crtitc? Capacity is a little less then cc cv…? Answer: cc or constant current is important because you don’t want to charge cells with a too high current, constant voltage is important because you don’t want to overcharge cells with too high of a voltage so you can have a constant voltage of 4.2 volt with a start current of 30 amps, this will be bad for the cell A proper charger will limit the current to lets say 1 amp and limit the voltage to 4.2 volt The charger will drop the voltage down until the cell receives 1 amp, when the cell amperage drops below 1 amp the voltage goes up but will never go over the set 4.2 max. voltage I Hope this helps

Scott Johnson wrote: I’ve got a pair of 18650s I’ve been carrying as spares. They were fully charged about a year ago so they’ve been stable. I measured their voltage thinking I could learn something about their state of charge. and they both measure 4.085 volts on a NIST-traceable calibrated voltmeter. Most of what I read here says that voltage is impossible and that it should be settled somewhere below 4V. Are they overcharged? Answer: The voltage after charge will drop off or settle lower than the charge voltage, when charged to 4.2 volt the voltage will settle anywhere between 4 and 4.2 volt and over time it can drop lower due to to self discharge At least that’s my experience with healthy li-ion cells (they should hold 4 volt over at least a couple of weeks)

Stephen Tice wrote: I am using old 18650 cells from laptop computers hocked up in series to get 37.80 volts to run a 9 Led flush light. I works well and I have tested it several times. I discharged the battierys to.13%.The problem is I am charging the 9 cells up one at a time and it takes much time ! Is there a charger I can use that will charge at 37.8 plus volts that will do the same job with out damaging the cells? 2nd question, what % can I discharge this battery doun to without damaging the cells? I am using old 18650 cells from laptop computers hocked up in series to get 37.80 volts to run a 9 Led flush light. I works well and I have tested it several times. I discharged the battierys to.13%.The problem is I am charging the 9 cells up one at a time and it takes much time ! Is there a charger I can use that will charge at 37.8 plus volts that will do the same job with out damaging the cells? 2nd question, what % can I discharge this battery doun to without damaging the cells? Answer: You could make two groups of 5 cells in series and 4 cells in series then connect the two groups in series and charge them separate with a (cheap) li-ion charger with balance charge capability The cheapest charger I could find will only do 6s or 6 cells in series max. You would have to do some research online and make groups with a balance connector (not that hard to do) The lowest voltage for discharge is 3 volt per cell before you cause damage some cells can go to 2.5 volt but 3 volt is a safe cut off There are cell voltage alarms available for RC hobby that can help out with a voltage alarm to let you know when the cells get to low

An e-bike battery (home made) with 12 cells in parallel is being charged to 4.10 volt end voltage The cut off amperage is 0.1 amp and during the charging the current will slowly drop off from lets say 6A to 0.1A During the charging the amperage will reach 0.5 Amp for example at which point the amperage per cell will be 0.5A/12 cells = 0.41mA possibly for an hour or longer Will this damage the cells? Is this considered trickle charging over a long period of time? The solution would be a high power charger that can deliver 12 amps or more with a higher cut off amperage but my main concern is, will this damage the cells if the end voltage is set at 4.10 volt or possibly lower at 4.0 volt? The issue here is not how to properly charge one cell but more what happens if you put multiple cells in parallel and the charge current per cell drops significantly which is mostly the case in high power applications such as e-bikes that require high amperage to run properly

I have a CPAP battery pack, a Medistrom, Pilot-12 Plus, cell type is described as Industrial grade genuine rechargeable lithium ion cells manufactured by LG® and I am recharging it with my semi truck’s invertor. Do I need a pure sine power supply?

I am using old 18650 cells from laptop computers hocked up in series to get 37.80 volts to run a 9 Led flush light. I works well and I have tested it several times. I discharged the battierys to.13%.The problem is I am charging the 9 cells up one at a time and it takes much time ! Is there a charger I can use that will charge at 37.8 plus volts that will do the same job with out damaging the cells? 2nd question, what % can I discharge this battery doun to without damaging the cells?

I’ve got a pair of 18650s I’ve been carrying as spares. They were fully charged about a year ago so they’ve been stable. I measured their voltage thinking I could learn something about their state of charge. and they both measure 4.085 volts on a NIST-traceable calibrated voltmeter. Most of what I read here says that voltage is impossible and that it should be settled somewhere below 4V. Are they overcharged?

What will happen with my Li Lion 18650 if i charge them only with cv and the current fluctates every secound, like charging on a Solar cell? Lifetime crtitc? Capacity is a little less then cc cv.

I have a robot mower whose charging circuit has broken. It only deliver 1.5V instead of 24V. Normally the robot homes on 2 big spikes to get recharged. I just got a 6-cell stand-alone charger. I took the battery out and see that it has 6 terminals labelled., T,BH,Vcc,BS, If I connect the charger to and. is is likely to charge, explode, or what? The manufacturer (Worx) doesn’t answer so I am in the dark here. I would be grateful for any info.

I have a question regarding how much the life time will be effected in an UPS battery which needs to maintain a fully charged battery for a long period of time(years). (With fully charged battery I thinking around 80% SoC) 1. Is it recommended to maintain battery voltage for 80% SoC for many years? 2. Is it better to lower SoC to 60-70%, will it prolong the total life time of the battery? 3. Is it important to do cell balancing even thou the SoC of battery is around 60-80% instead of 100%?

I have a question! I’m using iPhone and i only charge my phone by Laptop via USB host. But when i check my phone by software such as 3utools or similar. i realize my phone (battery) has max voltage’s 4.47V when max capacity. I think it’s a Li-ion battery type, and at 4.2V, my battery only has 80% capacity! Is that normal.

Hi, I have an Intergy Kodiak solar generator that uses a 1100 WH Li NMC battery. They claim it has a 2000 cycle service life and they recommend leaving it fully charged, and on the charger at all times. Based on your article, it seems to me I should limit charging to 40. 50 % when I’m not using it and try to get by with a 70% charge to maximize the service life. Is that correct? I wonder why Intergy would recommend leaving it on a charger continuously.

Hello. I would like to know about quick charge (Qualcomm technology). That make battey not stable right ? Let’s explain about how quick charge effect to battery please !

Hi i wondered when you charge a battery with a charger can it ever read more then 4.20 volt on a multi meter ? the charger does use CC CV. but i want to see if there is an y difference when i feed the charger 4.3 volt (4 is minimum) or 6 volt which is still within the specs. i ask, this to decrease heat. i noticed giving the charger less voltage generates less heat and i wonder how low i can go. the charge current remains the same in all cases. i sort of want to force the charge chip a 4057A to manipulate as little as possible (less heat) but since it some how is longer on the charger i wondered if i am not over charging the bat

i would like to know what to write in Reference as citation if i have wrote up a thesis by taking some information from this page, as an example i took figure 1 charge stages of lithium ion for my thesis but i couldnt find any citation for that picture. Need some help on citation for that. have a great day.

I have a question for a NiMh battery expert. I am building a 22 NiMh battery array and need to know how to charge it quickly and safely. It is going to consist of 22 type NUN 3000s in series (1.3Volt, 3000MaH). I need to know how to best charge these.I am assuming I will need to have thermal sensors to prevent overheating. Any help would be much appreciated. Thanks

Does charging your battery to 80% and discharging it to 50% make it last three times longer than it would if I charged it all the way to 100% and discharge it to 10%? Btw I am not a geek and that is why my peanut brain couldn’t understand the above explanation.

I would like to know if a supply voltage of 4.00 volts is hooked up to a lithium ion battery (4.20 volts 100% SOC), can the 4.00 volts be left on indefinitely? And be safe? If not, is there a power supply voltage level that would be safe? I.e 3.95, 3.90, 3.80, etc.? The 4.oo volt supply would allow for trickle charging up to 75% SOC and the battery would available for a short term high current draw as required from the battery.

Hi, I am building a small home solar system to store power. The plan is to be able to use that power on my ebike. Currently I have 2 52V 13.5ahr lithium ion battery packs for my bike that I switch in and out. I have purchased some 100W panels as well as an http charge controller. My question is should I store the solar energy in a higher capacity batter (or a lead acid) and then charge my lithiums from that battery, and how would I do that safely. Or can I charge the Lithiums directly from the sun?

My colleague read somewhere that the best way to charge battery pack is using current for a single cell. So for 18650 is 0.8C of a max today 3500mAh. Even if a battery pack have configuration 2S6P for example. Is it true? I mean it’ll take too long.

Great article. I have been confused for a long time about charging and howbit affects battery life, especially Li-ion batteries, now I have digested this article and I understand how it works. Am glad I found this article.

I am using Li-ion 5800mAh 3.7v batteries for flashlights. Should I discharge them all the way before recharging them?

My Android phone’s battery is removable. I have recently bought a second battery, so now I charge one in an external charger while using the other. The problem is that when swapping the batteries Android Marshmallow always shows the same percentage for the new battery as for the old. Therefore, I can never really know what the true percentage is of the new battery. Is there a solution, short of the ridiculous expedient of recalibrating each and every time?

Hello, Your papers on battery technology are brilliant and open. In the article on Lithium batteries, it implied that as long as the maximum current and maximum voltage for the battery technology were not violated, the charge cycle did not really matter. Is that correct? Specifically, irregularly trickle changing should not be a problem, given the voltage and current constraints. Thank you for your excellent work!

Please help Im bought a music player or DAP(digital audio player) which doesn’t come with charger adapter it only had cable of type-C to USB to charging.i wanna ask some questions 1.if the device need 5V 1A is it good/safe if i using adapter that come with 5V 2A for long term?? I worry it will ruin my battery life 2.which the best method, buy an adapter and charge it with adapter 5V 2A or charge it using high end desktop computer with USB 3.1 which covered with UPS?? For more stable flow which is good to go?? 3.could you give me some good an adapter brand for my music player?? I just dont want take a risk for buy cheap adapter because the music player was not cheap and i want it be good as last as possible Thank you

I am using 15 numbers of 3.2V Li-ion cells to make a 48V battery. Plz anyone tell that upto how much voltage I need to charge my cell and battery to get 95 to 100% capacity.

Hi, Am clarifying the following things. 1) Normal charging current for Li-ion battery pack is 0.5C to 1C.Right? 2)If we connect the charger which can supply the current of 0.2C, Whether this battery charger can charge this battery pack?

Here is a problem. You can buy cell balancing circuits online (ebay, aliexpress), but why they manufacture these circuit boards with cut-off voltage of 2.4v? WTF

Hi, can someone tell me the best battery type for grid-connected application like MMC battery energy storage system. Is it Lead‐ Acid, NaS, Li‐ion, or Flow Batteries? thanks. Kenneth

Dear all, Maybe my question will sound silly but I would like to ask why we have to charge in constant current since we have a balancer? Kind regards, Costas Mel

Question from bike-owner not at all battery-expert: I have bought the 51913 LION-S battery from SHIDO for my motorcycle BMW R1200CL. Unfortunately on this bike the battery is situated under the petrol tank, so I first have to remove both side covers and the tank before I can reach the battery. Before buying this Li-Ion battery, I did not know that my “Smart” charger from CTEK (with trickle and desulfation mode) is not suitable. But if I have understood the manufactures charging instructions correct, I may use my old common charger that gives 13,2V and max 7A. QUESTIONS: 1) Is my old charger appropriate for my battery? 2) I cannot disconnect the battery cables from the bike easily (due to the location), does that prevent me from charging? 3) How do I know for how long time I shall charge my battery? 2-3 hours? 4) If I forget to disconnect the charger, will that damage the battery? Thank you so much for the answers!

For a 48v lithium ion battery with 3.2v/cell, after SOC 99% to become SOC 100%, why the voltage of some cells crosses 3.8v. What is the effect of cell voltages at float vltages. Please suggest.

I have planned to charge Li-Ion battery using dynamo. Will there be problem if dynamo fails to generate continuous power? Because dynamo is powered up by hand cranking and it is not possible to crank continuously to generate power. Every 20 secs once cranking will be stopped. Which means battery will be charged for 20 secs and left free for 5 secs(repeated in regular manner). Thanks in advance.

SAM, You need a simple BMS that will disconnect the solar panel when it reaches the maximum voltage. Look on ebay there are lots of systems out there. You can even get 18650’s with a built in charge chip that I think must shut off the charger when it reaches maximum voltage that might work for you. These 18650’s a slightly longer as a result but might be a good solution for you. Do a search on ebay for BMS Protection Board for 1 pack 3.7V 18650 you will find it. Fred this might even work for you to and you would still be able to use the 5 volt charger

Fred you definitely need to get a proper charger rated for the battery.You will compromise the battery life and potentially cause other problems documented here and elsewhere.

Hello, There are much of good information here but please I need help to solve my issue. I have a RF remote system which is looking for signal at all time. It has one 18650 Lithium battery. I need to attach a mini Solar panel (I have a small 5v solar and a DC-DC converter set at 4.1v for charging) but I do connected this and remove the wire manually. How can I connect My small Solar panel to the battery and let it be, as I have mentioned the RF system is always working 24/7 listing for signal so the battery last about 6 weeks. how can I accomplish this. (to have a solar connected to one 18650 battery and solar will be working as long as there is a light and also the system will be draining the battery 24/7). Thank you ahead for helping me in this matter. I apologies if I keep repeating this as I have 6 of these systems and it get frustrating to do manual charge. Thank you, Sam

Hi, I have 2 devices that have different chargers, one is 5VDC 2 Amps, the other is 5.4VDC 3 Amps. I’ve been asked to investigate using the higher voltage charger on the lower voltage device. From what I have read above, it seems there is a risk of the battery exploding/bursting into flames. I would just like a confirmation that this is correct? We send these devices out to different customers, and if this is the risk involved we won’t investigate this further. Thank you.

Thanks Dan for the reply, the temperatures have improved and I think I have given the batteries enough time to charge. All of them have nicely come up to a full charge. I think they were all very badly imbalanced. You are right that zone between 3.6 and 3.7 is huge it takes along time to get to 3.8 at which point it rapidly reaches full charge. It is a big learning curve getting used to the nature of these batteries. I have been thinking about charging them in banks of 4 with independent 15 volt chargers and bms shut off. It strikes me that you would achieve better overall balance by managing in banks of four rather than having a single battery in a 32 battery pack determining when to shut down. That said I plan to have independent battery voltage read out’s as well as low voltage cut off. Any thoughts appreciated as I new to this.

Hi, you may damage your battery if charging in below freezing temp. http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/charging_at_high_and_low_temperaturesou Well you get the most of the energy at about 3.6V. If you discharge it and look at the curve. it’s almost flat at 3.7-3.6V. In my experience dead batteries don’t take charge (or very small amount), sometimes they heat up, sometimes they just take the current and nothing really happens (they neither heat up, nor store the charge). Try charging that battery at normal temp and then discharging. 20h@5A it’s 100Ah, so it should be around 3.6V at half of the charge.

As per my previous questions, could I be experiencing some kind of self discharge, given that it is quite cold out perhaps I am not seeing a temperature rise in the cell.

I have 44 Sinopoly 3.6 volt 200ah Lithium batteries that I have bought slight used, less than 100 cycles for an EV project. I am going thru charging and testing them and the BMS that came with them. I have a few questions. I have manged to charge them in blocks of 12 volts with a car charger using the BMS as a shut off. The nature of the BMS is that the charging is shut down when one of the four cells reaches full charge. The temperatures have dropped to.5 to. 9 Celsius this week. Will that effect the ability for the cells to reach a full charge. The reason I ask is I have been charging one cell with a variable power supply that I think has a lower state of charge than others. I have charged it for probably close to 20 hours at about 5 amps and it has not gone much over 3.6 volts. The BMS is set to shut off at about 4.1 the batteries then settle back down to around 3.7 if fully charged. Should I expect the current to drop off if 3.6 volts is all it is going to get to or is it just very low and I need to just keep charging and expect it to rise to the full voltage eventually. The battery is not heating up. What I am wondering is what are the signs of an abused or failing battery in relation to charging. The literature mentions minimum charge rates of 3 percent of capacity is 5 amps enough for a 200ah battery.

@kenny thanks for your answers hopefully you still respond here or vince. Following on from my post from a year ago i got another Samsung replacement phone unfortunately from same factory which ships the phone with 0% battery. When i received it it would not turn on i had to charge it. I think the reading at 3% was 3500mv so 3.5v. What would you speculate the voltage is at 0% and also when it has switched off itself. My concern is this 1 was made in December 2015 so nearly a year it has been below 0% and switched off. How much damage is done to the battery long term kept in its sleep mode we are taking at least 8 months. Even if i get a replacement from Samsung or amazon it may be from the same factory which dont charge the batteries before shipping. Is it elevated self discharge the issue or OS it overall capacity? When i check the reading of my old phone which i need to send back the mv reading at 61% is 3920mv and on this new 1 3855mv ie sbout 70mv lower. Is this due to the storage at less than 0%? I assume Samsung protection switch cuts it off around 3400mv 3.4V and i know letting a battery drop to that low voltage that it switches off is bad even if you charge the next day but if you let it dwell at that in an shut down off by itself state for months how much serious damage is there? importantly how do i tell? I have to send back the other one in a week or this 1 and cant decide which to keep. I dont want a battery which will screw up in a few months because some idiots in fsctory didnt charge it before shipping like they are supposed to Is the biggest issue welf discharge or overall capacity? Reading all the lithium articles it doesnt exactly explain my situation just that if you didcharge to 2.5v frequently ie recharge quickly after the self discharge is only 8mv per day conpared7to 8mv for a new battery. There’s no info on one which has been left in low voltage state of 3.4v then recharged months later. It only says copper dendrites form below 2.5v and the example they used they shorted the battery but ran it down to 0 volts. Mine hypothetically shuts off at below 3.5v dependion samsungs protection switch. Would the damage be significant? I can’t replace it it’s non renovable

Does anyone know what would happen to a Samsung phone which has 3000mah battery but was shipped with 0% battery and subsequently was stored in storage in warehouse for a year and the protection cut off switch was activated so did not turn on upon receiving. I think the voltage was around 3500mv so 3.5v at 0% maybe a bit less say 3.4v. how much damage to the lithium ion battery would their be if it’s been in storage at low voltage for a year brand new? Trying to decide whether to send it back. The voltage for my previous phone which i need to send back at 61% battery is 3920mv so 3.92V but on this one (due to damage i suspect of being stored at 0% and sleep switch activated ) at 61% reads 3855mv (3.85V) is the difference of 70mv 0.7V a significant difference?

I am designing a Li-ion charger for a product and will be using a purchased charger IC from a major IC manufacturer. It has the expected precharge, constant current, float voltage phases. I have a limited power source available, so my question is, is there a down side to providing a low current during the constant current phase, like C/20 (other than longer charge time)? Thanks in advance

I have been commissioned to design and supply the electrical control for a 38 foot electric boat that needs to run silently for 2 hours at 6 knots. The total power required is 70 kW. Light weight batteries is essential. I am assuming Lithium Ion. I have the ability and experience to produce the intelligent battery charger for lithium ion batteries. Where is the best place to purchase the batteries.

I have a battery pack, 6-cell (each cell is 3.7V/2500 mAh) making it to a 22.2V battery pack with protection circuit. I connected to 2 battery pack 22.2V in parallel so that it becomes a 22.2V / 5000 mAh battery pack. What sort of 22.2V battery charger should I use? There is a choice of: a) 22.2V / 2Amp battery charger b) 22.2V / 4Amp battery charger Can anyone advise? Thanks ERIC

Get a question, for figure 3. since you first use fixed current then fixed voltage, how to do you calculate the C-rate to be 1C?

It could be a good choice to use battery until 40% of charge then charging it up to 80% and then reuse it? If i’m using the laptop during the charging phase i not good? Thanks! 😀

I’m using a battery pack composed of Li 18650 Cells. Although the cell data sheet says the maximum battery voltage is 4.2, the BMS manufacturer suggested i define the cell termination voltage to 4,1. Is there any problem or advantage on this ? As i see it it will be safer and since i will be working from 85/90 % SOC to 30% it will prolong the batteries life? Am i right ? Thanks

Hello everyone. I’ve got a question. I have an electric scooter with the lithium ion battery (72V 20Mah). Can I charge it with a charger for lead-acid batteries?

The previous termination point of 4.2 V (chemistry dependent) is unchanged. What’s with the spam posts above? If these Комментарии и мнения владельцев aren’t moderated at least provide a report option.

As long as the batteries in parallel are the same chemistry, and (as you state) are about the same capacity, then you can do this, and it will add the capacity ratings. This requires a modification to the charge termination though, as the previous termination point no longer applies with the higher capacity. capacity (900mAh vs 500mAh) results in more hours of run-time. that is what mAh means. how many milliAmps of load for how many hours.

Hello I have a question what happens if I connect 2 batteries in paralel 1) 500 mAh 3.7 and 2) 400 mAh 3.7 v. do I obatin more capacity or more or less 900 mAh, or more hours ? Thanks

Hello. My question is this: If I charge Lithium Ion battery non-stop with 10mA, that is 24/7 with no cut, will this damage the battery? Charging time can be weeks, no problem; my concern is that is this going to damage the battery somehow?

@Dan Thank you for the reply! As you said, there is some shortening of battery life but I haven’t seen any document on how much.

@Byron Hourmand if you’re thinking about long-term effects, then mostly yes. As it said earlier, lithium batteries don’t like to be neither in a fully discharged state, nor in fully charged. I cannot tell the numbers, but you’re shortening life of a cell while continuously putting it in a fully charged state. This is my 5cents. (that is the reason why my laptop battery is absolutely dead after 4 years)

Would a LiPo battery get damaged if after the switch from CC to CV, the CV (4.2V) is not terminated after battery is fully charged? Your reply is appreciated.

@ Andy, are they in parallel or in series? In parallel no issue as they will always be balanced. In series you can take them out every 10-25 cycles and charge them separately, if soldered together best is to add a small BMS Battery Monitoring System setup which equalizes the voltages of each cell, depending on how much current is needed the vary, some examples, search for 2s BMS 4A on eg. aliexpress.com.

If my pair of 18650 batteries become unbalanced how do I get them back to proper balance? They’re LG HG2 3000mah 18650 cells. They’ve been married since day 1.

could you any one can tell about how the lithium ion battery full cell making ? how much cathode(LiCoO2) and how much anode(graphite) we have to take to fabricate the 250 mAh cell. what parameter i have to take care of when we make full cell. the cathode specific capacity 160mAh/g and anode is 370mAh/g ,so that which one we have to considered when we make full cell fabrication.

i have changed my laptop battery since 6 month ago with a new one it was working very good then amount of the charge reduced to 3/4 of full charge and its about 3 month battery not charging and condition of the battery are good i have changed the battery with the similar one of my friend it was charging without any problem for your more information my laptop le z500.45ip Lenovo and the battery li-ion color black voltage 14.4v capacity 2200mAh thanks in advance mohsen.m.shabestari

hi. i bought a Chinese quad-copter phantom 5c from a local store.i charged the battery for 3 hrs but charge-full led never lit. it use to fly for two minutes before emptying the battery.i got its battery replaced from the same store. it came with a USB charger that plugs into wall socket and reads SEC: 3.7v. 350mA. the a wire with a USB(and a small circuit on it with a charge=full led) plugs in USB port of charger and other end of wire has a connector that plugs into battery(connector). the new battery reads (ds 852540) 3.7v 650mAh. NOW THE QUESTION IS THAT HOW LONG SHOULD IT TAKE TO FULLY CHARGE THIS BATTERY WITH ABOVE MENTIONED CHARGER ANOTHER QUESTION IS THAT CAN I PLUG THE USB WIRE INTO MY LAPTOP.

This is a great post about Li-ion batteries, and I would like to learn more. Does anyone reading this post know much about these new Hover Board / Self Balancing Scooters that have rechargeable Li-Ion batteries and have been catching fire or exploding during charging or during product use? These scooters are made primarily in China by a number of different manufacturers, and I’m sure the quality of components and assembly differs. The more expensive scooters come with Samsung or LG brand Li-Ion batteries. The cheap ones have Chinese made batteries. Is a quality battery one of the main contributing factors to prevent the problems of over-heating / fires with these products? Or is it also a matter of the charging adapter unit that is included? Do the charging adapters have circuitry inside to prevent overvcharging of the battery? The ones I have seen have red and green lights. red means charging, green means charged. Would green light mean that the current from the charger is stopped, because the battery is charged? Or do the scooter units themselves, or the batteries have built in circuitry to prevent over charging? I was thinking of buying one of these products for my daughter for Christmas, but would like to knowledgeable about the risks.

Thanks for a superb insight. Wanted to understand this better so ran some elementary tests Can you help me interpret the results and answer the questions raised here please http://engineering.stackexchange.com/questions/6406/charging-a-smartphone-battery-while-using-it/6409#6409

Does anyone know what would happen to a new 3000mah mobile battery that was stored in warehouse for 3 months at 1%? Asw we know from here high voltage heat and low voltage ie stored below 5% are very bad for the battery capacity. Would i notice this issue straighr away? The battery is sealed in the new phone and cant be removed. How much stress and capacity loss would be caused if such a new battery was stored at 1% for 3 minths? Are we talking a 10-20% reduction in capacity overall? It seems fine but im just worried in a couple months it’ll kick in and my battery wont last as long as it does now as i just got the phone.

I see several unanswered questions. I can try to answer some of them: 6/8 Richard: Good question. I haven’t seen any info about charging efficiency for li-ion batteries either. Post back here if you’ve found any. 6/10 Danigar: Charging while the device is on can full the charging into thinking that the device battery is at a lower voltage than it really is, so I think it matters most when you are near full. It also depends on how much current the device is using. That said, I don’t turn off my phone when charging either. 6/10 Tam: Was this after the battery was fully charged (no more current going into the battery)? I think that older batteries will drop in voltage quickly, but should start full. Not sure why yours doesn’t. 7/6 roya: It sounds to me as if your battery just isn’t holding a charge. Check for weak/diluted electrolyte? 7/15 Robert: Li-ion batteries can normally be charged in any position. lead-acid and liquid batteries need to be charged upright to allow for potential venting during the charge process. 7/28 Pushpendra: Sorry, don’t know the answer off-hand. 8/24 Abraham: A fully charged Li-ion usually attains ~4.2v when new. Your battery starts off with a lower voltage which means a shorter life. It’s not truly dead. A Li-ion battery at 1.0 volts needs to be recharged, it’s dead because it can’t provide much current at that voltage, but recharging it will bring it back to life 10/1Vivek: For max battery life, try to keep the charge between 20-80%. Do not let it discharge completely. If charged 100%, try to use it immediately. 11/2 Taxiarchis: 1) So long as the fast charge does not exceed 0.8C, it should not damage the battery. Fast charge might end up over-charging slightly. 2) The device itself should limit and regulate the charge voltage, so the 5.0V USB voltage is converted to ~4.2V by the device. If you are feeding the 5.0V straight into the battery, it can overheat and explode. Some 18650 cells are protected against this, but others are not. 3) I haven’t seen any responses from the author in a long time.

here are my 2 or 3 questions, 1) Is slow charging (via USB-Port) better then fast charging (wall plug)? 2) USB chargers have an output of 5.0V. Would this cause problems with lithium batteries since as stated above, charging above 4.3v causes plating of the metallic lithium on the anode? 3) I don’t see any Комментарии и мнения владельцев replied. You reply via email, or don’t? Thanks!

really a good informative and educative article i have gone trough it really gave real picture of the LI-ion batteries and charging modes thank you

I recently download an app which I think could be really beneficial for lithium-ion batteries in mobile phones! This app called ace charge, it disconnect the charge on 100% full charge or even can define to not charge the phone over 80%!

Hello everyone I manage a small wireless business in south Fl I hav been following an excellent way of charging Li-ion batteries and passing it over to my clients Lithium-ion Batteries Should be turned off charged Up to 5 hours before their first use. Ignore the phone or dock charger telling you that the battery is Full—this is Normal but, is not accurate if the battery is not initialized. Battery life varies by use and configuration. DO NOT fully discharge a lithium-ion battery! Below 8-10% Unlike Ni-Cad batteries, Lithium-ion batteries life is shortened every time fully discharge them. Instead, charge them when the battery meter shows one bar left. Lithium-ion batteries, like most rechargeable batteries, have a set number of charge in them. ONCE INITIALING YOUR BATTERY: BASIC Handset Within 2 Hrs MAX. OR Smart Handset Within 3 Hrs a partial charge is better. OVER 3 Hrs OVERNIGHT CHARGING, Talking, Playing while Charging WILL DAMAGE YOUR BATTERY CELLS. And they work Awesome- Hope will work for you as well.

I am HAVING A QUESTION. I have a battery that i use to charge it with a 10W panel. the BATTERY IS 3.5 fully charged, a lithium ion battery. nut what makes it a dead battery?? when it turns to 1.0v?? when i recharge it with the panel it turns 3.5v and i can use it again. BUT MY BOSS TELLS ME ITS A DEAD BATTERY WHEN IT TURNS 1.0V

Hi there, I have two questions. if anybody can help me to understand: 1. Why we use Cu for anode and Al for cathode as current collector ? 2. how to select a voltage window for a full cell (Li-ion case) while using different anode. Suppose if I am working with Graphite half cell/anode the voltage window to test the battery is 0.0-to 1.5 V. Now if I have a Full cell with LFP/LMO/LCO as cathode and Graphite or Si or LTO as anode than how to select a voltage window to test the battery ?? If anybody there can help ?

Does a lithium battery used in a golf cart need to be horizontal for charging or is vertical ok.(the space where I store the cart needs to have it vertical)

I`m working on solid electrolyte using Graphite as anode and LiCo2 as anode. My battery does not provide a reliable Constant current charge/discharge cycle. it takes less than a minute to charge the battery to 4.2 v at constant current rate of 0.2 mA and also very short time of around 10 seconds to discharge it from 4.2 V to almost 3v. However, the constant voltage charging process period ranges from 1 hour to 2 hours which means the battery hits the saturation voltage. my question is what can possibly contribute to unsuccessful constant current Ch/D-Ch cycles?

I really like your page. I want to ask where can I find a catalogue with the discharge characteristics depend on time. I have looked everywhere, but I can only find for lead acid. thank you and congrats for your work.

Hey guys, I’m currently using a Li-Ion charger IC(MCP73861) to charge an old 18650. I have set the charging voltage at the “saturation charge stage” to 4.2V but the battery voltage seems linger at around 3.9V on my oscilloscope/data logger. I know that an old battery may result in reduced capacity but can the same be said for the voltage?

Hi there! You say A device should be turned off while charging. This allows the battery to reach the threshold voltage unhindered and reach a low saturation current when full. A parasitic load confuses the charger. Could you be more specific as to how important this is? Turning the cell phone off and on every time you charge it is cumbersome, so unless it has a considerable impact on battery life I would rather not do it. Thanks!

I have read everything I could find on charging LiPos, but there has been no discussion about the charging efficiency, i.e., what percentage of energy put into a cell goes toward actual capacity? I know that lead acid is about 80%.

Sorry, haven’t checked here in a while. Here are some answers that I have: 3/5: mert: The time to charge depends on the amount of current your charger can provide, and the initial state of your batteries. Li-ion batteries should be shipped with 40-60% charge. Assuming that your batteries are about 3.7V to start, then the charge time will be about 1 hour at 500mA, or 1/2 hour at 1Amp. 3/6: DJ: Yes, the 3.7V is just a nominal voltage for a Li-ion battery. Charge at 4.2V for a full 100% charge 3/18: Christian: Max charge rate is usually 1C, or 1.43A for your battery. Recommended charge rate is 0.8C or 1.144A. So for a fast charge, you can use 1A max. 500mA would take longer, but may be a bit better/safer. 4/8: Mina: I assume that your tablet has a Li-ion battery. For maximum life, start recharging at 20% and stop at 80% for maximum life. Thus, it’s OK (and better for the battery) to recharge before it is fully empty 5/2: tim: Sorry, that’s not quite enough information. The battery pack capacity rating (in amp-hours) is needed to determine the recommended charge rate. If the pack is rated for 0.75AH (or 750mAh) then the 0.6A charger should be OK. I suspect that it will be fine, as most packs are designed to have larger capacity. 5/19: Martin Butcher: Sounds like a myth, but it depends. If the solar power is converted into standard AC voltage and the phones are charged with a regular charger, then it shouldn’t affect the life of the phone battery any more than regular power would. If the solar power is fed directly into the phone without regulation, and the voltage varies, then it could reduce the life of the batteries (or more likely damage the phone). 5/24: tom: With a 9000mAh pack, the charge rate of USB vs. 1A vs. 2.1A should not affect the battery life at all, the max recommended rate of 0.8C is 7.2A! It must take a really long time for a full charge using a USB port though!

ijust bought a 9000 mill amp battery pack for my phone it had no charge when it came out of the box charging with a 2.1 amp charger it charged a bit quicker then expected but its charging so this battery can only get a slow charge due to the limits of USB but would a 1 amp charger be better for longer life or would it not matter

Very detailed explanations. I have built a few Charging systems myself and the information you supplied gives a good insight on do’s and don’ts. Thanks

a query than a comment. I am currently living in Malawi where there has been a variety of programs providing solar panels in villages. Somebody with electricity can charge about 10cents to charge a phone, however I have just heard that people are avoiding getting their phones charged with those that have solar power on the grounds that solar charging reduces the lifespan of the phone battery. Does this sound realistic, or might it be a myth? ( possibly promoted by those who are wealthier and have mains electricity connection)

Hello B.U. / kenny, I have a device (portable amplifier) that claims to use a 4-pack li-ion. The original charger of that device is a 3P10-L1016. Output: 16.8V 0.45A. My question is, can I use the same model 3P10-L1016 but with a different amperage? The replacement charger I found has rated output of 16.8V 0.6A I really need help on this as I don’t want to make a mistake and destroy the amplifier. Thank you!

Should i make sure that mysamsung tab4 baterry fully empty then recharge it or is it ok to charge it even if its not fully empty. Thank you.

hi, i have a 3.7 v. li-on battery 900mAh 3.33Wh how many hours do i have to do the first charge of it ? thanks

@Christian: For a 2400mAh, the 1C rate is 2.4A. The maximum recommended charge rate is usually 0.8C, or 1.92A. So I would not use anything greater than 1.5A just to keep a little margin. After that, it’s just how fast you want to recharge your battery. At 1.5A, the battery will recharge in less than 2 hours. 500mA will take ~5 hours for a depleted battery.

Hello guys, I’m buying a smartphone that does not bring original charger. The battery is 2400mAh li-ion. I wonder how many amps have to take the charger to extend the useful life of the battery, if low amp (500mA, for example), or a high amperage (1A-2A). How many amps should I buy? Regards!

Here are some answers that I believe are correct: 12/28: James: It would be dangerous to apply voltages greater than 4.2V. I would FOCUS on the charging current, and limit it to 0.8C max. I agree that it is difficult to measure the battery voltage while charging. Even though the internal resistance of the battery is low, the voltage will still be elevated slightly compared to the actual voltage of the battery. 1/4: Jerry Jones: Apple suggests doing a full discharge/full charge cycle once a month to calibrate the percentage of battery life indicator. This process will shorten the overall life of the battery, but once a month should not affect it significantly. 1/4 Ryan Evans: About the same for charging in a phone vs. a charger, depending on the charger. However, in a phone that is still powered on, that may be a little worse since the charge circuitry could get confused with the power draw from the phone. So maybe the separate battery charger (if it’s a decent one with proper voltage control) would be slightly better. 1/8: Nancy: The country of the charger shouldn’t make a difference so long as the outputs are correct. Just make sure that the output voltage of the chargers match. The country of the batteries shouldn’t matter either, so long as they are the same type. 1/12: petey pablo: Unfortunately, I don’t see any answers from Vince here for a while. I agree that the difference in the percentage of run time reading is a calibration issue. The discharge voltage for Li-ion batteries are fairly flat around the 3.7V range, so a very slight difference in voltage could translate to a significant percent of run time difference. 1/19: Ankit: Charging to 100% and discharging to 1% is stressful to the battery, and will shorten the overall life of the battery, but it will (obviously) give the longest time before recharging is necessary. If you can, I would charge from 80%-20% to prolong the overall life of the battery. Even reducing the span to 90%-10% would help. Most people care more about how long their phone run between recharging since they change phones (or batteries) once performance drops. 2/1: danimal: The amount of current flow follows Ohm’s law, I=V/R, where I is current in amps, V is voltage difference between the source and destination batteries in volts, and R is the resistance in the circuit (both internal to the batteries and external to the batteries) in ohms. You will need a series resistor in the charge path since the internal resistance of batteries is typically very low. The resistor would be R=(Vs-Vd)/I where Vs is the voltage on the source battery, Vd the voltage on the dead Li-ion battery, and I = 0.01A to 0.02A. This is assuming that the internal resistances are small. 2/1: James: good point. I think that this article refers to the most common Li-ion battery formula, Lithium Cobalt Oxide(LiCoO2). I believe that the basics still apply to other Li-ion technology (don’t operate continuously at full charge, don’t fully discharge) but the specifics (charge voltage, max voltage, charge current) may vary. Hope that you all check back to see these answers!

Does all of the information contained in the original post still apply? I’m thinking that battery technology may have changed and improved since it was written.

i’ve heard you may be able to recover a dead lithium cell by charging it with very low mA, like 10-20 mA until it comes back up to around 1-1.5 volts. can this be achieved by hooking up a 1.5 volt alkaline battery (or several) into them? if so, how do you calculate mathematically, how many mA the aa/aaa battery will shoot into them

i hav moto x 2013 which has a 2200 mah li-ion battery. i usually charge it upto 100% the use it till 1% ans repeat the process every day after reading this matter above ,i am confused can any1 help me by telling how to charge it.i mean frm what % till what %

@vince I recently got a tablet with a 9500mah battery I also still have my phone with 3000mah and a spare with 2100mah.my confusion is that I followed your advice to charge it when it drops below 3700mv which is around 25% on my 3000mah battery and 32% on my 2100mah one. My confusion is that on the massive 9500mah tablet battery it reaches 3700mv at only 45% battery. Why is that.is it a calibration issue?

I bought my camera with 3.6 v lithium ion battery in Korea. I will be moving back to Canada. Can I charge these batteries in a Canadian charger that I will purchase when I arrive home? If not, do you thnk the camera will function the same with the same type of battery bought in Canada?

Is charging the battery fully in a battery charger better than charging it in the phone or worse or about the same?

Apple suggests to fully cycle (fully discharge/fully charge) its batteries once per month. This suggestion seems to fly in the face of the points made in this article. Who’s right?

I am now trying to design a Li-ion battery charger and facing 2 questions about charging a Li-ion battery. 1. Is there any maximum charging supply voltage for charging the battery? It seems that it is dangerous if I apply 10V to charge the 4.2V battery. Or should we only FOCUS on the charging current? 2. The paragraph states that the maximum voltage of most of the Li-ion batteries is 4.2V. How can we measure voltage when we charge the battery? The battery emf ( that means the open circuit voltage) to voltage across the 2 terminal.

Thanks for the clarification. I may as well take the opportunity to add a note on the Li-polymer batteries I was playing with that mentioned in my first post. The brand-new (8 year-old!) battery when left charging overnight on 4.2v @ 100mA was drawing zero current next day, so fully charged. I stuck it on a small 12v motor that draws at least 100mA, which continued to spin for at least 11 hours. so the battery would have delivered its full rated capacity of 1260mAh. Having done this a few times now with 2 of these same batteries, one a well-used one from an old mobile phone, what is immediately obvious is that protection-circuitry is built into these batteries. when the voltage drops to 2.50v, it is switched off completely, dropping to zero volts. This to me reaffirms how crucial it is with Li-batteries that the voltage should not fall below this. I am also very impressed that even after sitting for over 8 years, these Li-polymer batteries both immediately accept a charge, and deliver their rated-capacity back to a load. I also have (many) 3.6v NiMH batteries of the same age. While most were also brand-new then, many have ‘leaked’ badly in the interim. The ones I tested did take a charge though, and delivered close to their rated capacity. However, their being charged only exacerbated the leakage problem, which they continued to do even after several charge/discharge cycles. So, personally I think Li-batteries are a far better technology than NiMH, especially long-term.

My comment was only to suggest that C (when referring to C-Rate) was possibly being confused with degrees Celsius only because the writer refereed to temperature directly following the statement about C-Rate. Anyways. I think I just added to any confusion that may have been present in the comment discussion.

Brad T, that post of yours is really opaque. on the one hand you seem to agree that the reference to C has nothing to do with degrees Celsius and actually refers to battery capacity. but then you write; The following statement involving temperature is has no relation to the C rates which is meaningless, if only because nothing follows that line! Or was that line meant to read The following statement involves temperature and has no relation to the C rates Either way, nothing followed.

RE: “Manufacturers recommend charging the 18650 cell at 0.8C or less. “ C in the article refers to a unit of measure based on the capacity of a given battery. A 1000mah battery would have a C rate of 1000ma eg 1 C = 1000ma.5C = 500ma The following statement involving temperature is has no relation to the C rates.

Well caught battery Bro! I am now wondering just how ‘authoritative’ this article really is if the author actually believes that the manufacturers are referring to temperature! This is a real rookie-mistake to make.

How to charge Li-Ion 3.7V? I’ve a iMAX B6 Pro charger that assumes Li-Ion cells have a nominal voltage of 3.6V and Li-Po have a nominal voltage of 3.7V. I’m going to charge some 18650 cells taken out form some laptop battery pack. They are marked as Li.Ion but with a nominal voltage of 3.7V. Now, how should set my charger? According to the chemistry (Li-Ion 3.6V) or to the nominal voltage (Li-Po 3.7V) In the firs case i’m afraid to charge the cells not completely, in the second case i’m afraid to overcharge the cells with the risk of fire. Please help me to understand what to do. Thank u very much!

One thing to note. the article states Manufacturers recommend charging the 18650 cell at 0.8C or less. Actually manufacturers require charging the 18650 cell ABOVE zero degrees Celsius. The 0.8C is a simple a way of to talk about charge and discharge rates for batteries.

what will happen if a LI-ion battery continuously charged without unplug the charger?? Even if you have continuously connected the charger the charger is Smart enough to not to charge the battery once its fully charged. There is nothing wrong in keeping battery always connected to charger. Infact laptops which are being used in home are almost always connected to charger. the only harm is that Lithium batteries don’t like highest and lowest allowed voltage level. So even its safe to constantly keep the battery at full charge the rate of deterioration of battery is higher compared to keeping the battery at about 40% charged. But then its not possible to maintain the battery charged to 40%. 2. What happen if the battery charged and use for some. There is absolutely no problem in doing that every time. In-fact it will increase your battery life. Remember cells dont like extreme high or extreme low voltage. Only problem is that the state of charge (SOC) calculator will slowly drift away and will show you wrong capacity remaining values. They correct themselves each time the highest and lowest voltage level are reached.

i want to know what will happen if a LI-ion battery continuously charged without unplug the charger?? also what happen if the battery charged and use for some time again charged after some time without discharge the battery to the minimum charge(not only one day,all times doing this ) so any problem??

I am interested in buying Li-ion 9v batteries but was taken aback by the large numbers of Amazon users that ended up with dead batteries from allowing the voltage to drop too low. I come across this all the time with NiMH batteries with my expensive charger where the voltage is too low to register with the charger, so it never initiates a charging-cycle. The solution is just to stick the ‘dead’ battery on a cheap charger that always supplies a constant voltage supply and the battery soon comes back to life! I figured this was the case with Li-ion batteries also. until I came across this article! This piqued my interest enough to dig out a few brand-new but very old mobile phone Li-polymer batteries I have. over 8 years old but never used still enclosed in their plastic shrouds. Sure enough, the measured battery voltage was zero. Setting my bench power supply to 4.2v and limiting the current to 100mA, I connected up the ‘dead’ battery and straight away it started to charge! It has been charging for several hours now, the voltage across it slowly increasing (it’s about 3.9v now). due to the power supply’s current-limiting. and I have no doubt that I will end up with a fully charged Li-ion battery. So I don’t know what to make of this article now. or the scores of Amazon buyers that have ended up with ‘dead’ batteries.

As stated in the article its best not to fully charge and fully discharge the battery which is very much known fact and logical, so I want to charge my 4.35V LG D1 (3000 mAh) cell to only 4.1V. I want to know should I just charge it to 4.1V in constant current mode and then disconnect the charger, or should I charge it to 4.1V in constant current mode and then keep 4.1V in constant voltage mode till charging current tapers to a small value? What is better for cell? Is there any advantage or drawback of any method?

As stated in the article its best not to fully charge and fully discharge the battery which is very much known fact and logical, so I want to charge my 4.35V LG D1 (3000 mAh) cell to only 4.1V. I want to know should I just charge it to 4.1V in constant current mode and then disconnect the charger, or should I charge it to 4.1V in constant current mode and then keep 4.1V in constant voltage mode till charging current tapers to a small value? What is better for cell? Is there any advantage or drawback of any method?

I have LG G2 mobile phone purchases from korea. My battery removable Li-ion of 2610 mah. My mobile battery is not working properly from last many days. Many time i used data cable for charging my mobile. I have 1.0 Amp mobile charger, Please tell me what is the right procedure to charge my mobile. Please tell in steps. I want to change my charger by 1.5 amp or 2.0 amp. Which one is good for my mobile battery.

idn’t know that my phone was like 40% then when i got on the bus it was 90% aka this is from 10- 17-14 i am ijn 6th grade btw

I have purchased a new lithium ion power bank. There is some partial charge that it came with. Should I first discharge the battery completely and then charge it fully or should I first charge it completely and then start using?

I have a cycle light supplied with a 8.4 volt 6400mAh battery pack. the supplied charger has an output voltage of 4.2 volts at 500 mA. the battery refuses to charge. am I missing something or is it obvious. I am a graduate electrical engineer

hello to all of you i am design a AC to DC charger for the USB devices. so in this when devices(load) is connected then and then charger is work otherwise not work. In short i am saving a enrgy is it possible. If it is possible then which circuit is used for the load detector.

hello, i am design a AC to DC charger for USB devices. And i am some query about that. My requirement is the when only device is connected then and then charge otherwise this circuit is off. in short i want to save a power when the device is not connected

I have purchased Lithium PO4 batteries. Each battery is rated at (3v-3.2v-3.65v) 20Ah-60w What would be my charging v outputs from 60 to 85%? Thanks, Gary PS- The BMS is the Ligoo the Battery pack will be a 400Ah. The charger is a TCCH-4k input is 240 @ 8.1 amps

Hello, What if I charge my iPhone in an interrupted way ? Let’s consider this pattern: 20 seconds of charging and 60 seconds of pause. All this for a half day or so. Will that affect the battery ?

Hello, Will frequent interrupted charging of phones (or so) affect its Lithium-Ions ? Let us consider this constantly repeated cycle : 20 s of charging 60 s of pause for a half day.

I bought a new li-ion battery for my smartphone xolo q1000 it was well charging on the 1st day but the next day how much ever I charge its not charging at all.why is this??

Can a 12 volt lithium ion rechargeable battery be used to charge the 3.7 volt battery in a cell phone?

My mobile is a Cynus E1 (Mobistel), has little time and I’ve noticed that the percentage that tells me to be on the percentage is different when I turn it off to charge. Arriving at 15% I turn it off, I connect and gives me a 50% !! Not always gives me these incorrect percentages. I’ve calibrated following the steps of the video, by the way, excellent video and for several days it looked like it had been solved. I usually do not complete charge and discharge. I usually do loads of different percentages, 44%, 60%, 15%. according to the occasion. That if the phone does not turn off but it has me a little worried. I have entered into some forums and there are people with the same problema.Mi question is: Will faulty battery, has a solution. Thank you

please someone give correct info about using new lithium ion battery for the first time. i am very confused about this as everyone has different opinions

Hey sir i need your help!!AS i am using a phone now a days (sky vega 850) and it’s battery is Li-Ion 2600 mAh battery now i lost mine original charger now can you guide me which type of or i should say which type charger that contain how much ampere should i used. i need your comment as i am little bit worried about my phone Thanks

Hello, I want to ask a basic question about charging process of multiple batteries at same time. For example if I have connected some lithium cells of 4v in 5s3p. Now if I used them 50% then after start charging the whole circuit with one charger what happened? Do they get charged one by one in a circuit or all will charged at once with same voltage increment. thanks in advance

Hello guys I have carefully studied this website about lithium ion batteries, i wanted to know if HD gaming on smartphones reduces battery life since high demand gaming applies high currents to the battery (usually more than its nominal capacity) and very rapidly drains it. does it highly affect cycle life? should i stop playing high quality games on my smartphone? thanks in advance,

@Kathy: you cannot destroy such a battery with the standard charger, even if you leave it in for 24 hours. The problem you have must be with the flashlight itself. I hope they didn’t tell you otherwise in the shop.

@vince I was hoping you might be able to shed some light on this battery situation I’m having, judging by the information above in the article temperature makes a huge long term impact on battery life i.e. above 30C is detrimental. it’s summer here where i am and even though the temperature is only 20C in my phone the battery temperature is usually in low to mid 30C’s (unavoidable really, even in an indoor air con place) and i’ve noticed a dramatic drop in my battery life judging by the voltage. a few questions I have is. if the temperature is high therefore i’ve lost overall capacity in the past 2 months. ie usually i charge at 30% with the voltage reading higher than 3795mv and above. but recently i’ve looked at the battery info at 30% it now says 3700mv or below. im using same charger charging same way the charger which came with the device. would it be plausible that the heat has reduced my overall battery capacity? something you mentioned before that the speed at which the charger chargers the phone affects how much voltage reading there is. i.e. if it fasts charge with the charger then obviously the run time wont be as long. however it’s the same charger charging the same way as before. is the only explanation that the heat has reduced the capacity overall? bear in mind i do not charge it to 100% often as it causes stress on the battery so that can be ruled out. i used to be able to get by around 80% battery but now these days i cant seem to get through a day with that much. i.e. when i charge again at 30%. is it plausible that (ruling out that i dont let it drop to zero, always charge at 30% and lowest 16% once in a while) and never charge to above 93% (only once in a while) mainly always take off at 70% cos it takes so long to charge i get impatient. that effectively my battery capacity has reduced dramatically? i only got it in march manufacture date was jan 2014 and it’s only been warmer the past 2 months and that’s when i’ve noticed the dramatic reduction. the annoying thing is there’s nothing i can do as there’s no fan to keep it cool, i already keep the case slightly open to let the hot air escape. and also it’s incovenient being unable to use the phone when there isnt a fan source. is that probably the most likely explanation? it seems due to the higher temps i’ve lost 10% overall battery capacity (assuming the reading is correct and it is not charging faster than normal) consequently. if the overall capacity reduces does that therefore mean the phone should charge quicker to reach 80%? i assume that’s how i’d know if the capacity has been reduced noticeably.

@Khairul: your new mains adapter has 5V instead of 5.25V. So it won’t harm the battery or the charger circuit inside the phone. Worst case, your battery won’t get fully charged or won’t charge at all if 5V is too low for the charger circuit. Your max adapter current 1 amp is no problem. The phone will never draw that much out of it, so you have some spare. Andre

Kathy, seems to me this is a flashlight problem, not a battery problem. The light works when you unscrew the cap a little bit. I think your battery and charger are OK. Maybe tightening the cap puts too much pressure on parts inside the flashlight. Andre

Hello, I have a battery 1S4P Li-Ion 3.7V 8800 mAh (4 cells of 2200 mAh in parallel). I have a station charger model ELV ALC8500 Expert 2. I have charged the battery yesterday in conditions C/2 in CC ( Constant Current step, 4.4 Amps of charge current), then max voltage when CV step (Constant Voltage) equals to 4.2 V. I have started the charge, then stopped it as needed to get back to home. When I stopped it, it was entered in the CV step, but wasn’t finished (not yet arrived to 0.03 Capacity conditions). I wanted to restart the process this morning, to finish the charge, but impossible. When i read the voltage, it is indicated 1.8 V, meaning the battery is dead. I really don’t understand what happened. The battery was disconnected, in a closed plastic box, with good temperature. Does someone has ever met this case?

On December 2, 2010 at 1:12am Steve Webert wrote: Does it benefit a lithium-ion or lithium-ion-polymer battery to periodically discharge it “fully” (ie, down to the above me.ntioned 2.7V-3.0V range)? I have read several OEM’s offering differing strategies for optimizing battery life. Thank you for your time and efforts—I very much appreciate the above instruction. DUDE, what the hell!? READ THE ARTICLE. NEVER ever ever, NEVER let a LI-Ion get anywhere near below 3.0v for any period of time, to do so renders your battery useless. 3.2v to any device, means ZERO, I turn myself off now, no matter what, thankyou for using me. (That’s the device talkin’, yo!) READ THE ARTICLE.

quote: Before prolonged storage, apply some charge to bring the pack to about half charge. But my Canon S90 camera’s manual states that to store the battery for long periods, deplete and remove it from camera. Storing a battery for long peroids without depleting may shortern its life. (The camera shipped with a Li-ion battery. NB-6L 3.7V 1000mAh) So I’m really confused. Which should I believe, the manufactures’s manual or this article?

quote: Before prolonged storage, apply some charge to bring the pack to about half charge. But my Canon S90 camera’s manual states that to store the battery for long periods, deplete and remove it from camera. Storing a battery for long peroids without depleting may shortern its life. (The camera shipped with a Li-ion battery. NB-6L 3.7V 1000mAh) So I’m really confused. Which should I believe, the manufactures’s manual or this article?

quote: Before prolonged storage, apply some charge to bring the pack to about half charge. But my Canon S90 camera’s manual states that to store the battery for long periods, deplete and remove it from camera. Storing a battery for long peroids without depleting may shortern its life. (The camera shipped with a Li-ion battery: NB-6L 3.7V 1000mAh) So I’m really confused. Which should I believe, the manufactures’s manual or this article?

quote: Before prolonged storage, apply some charge to bring the pack to about half charge. But my Canon S90 camera’s manual states that to store the battery for long periods, deplete and remove it from camera. Storing for long period without depleting, may shorten its life. (The camera shipped with a NB-6L 3.7V 1000mAh Li-ion battery) So I’m really confused. Whom should I believe, the manufactures’ manual or this article?

@vince thanks for your reply. you mentioned before that ideally it be best to charge the battery when it reaches just below 3700mv and stop charging just after it reaches above (which is impractical of course) as i have a 3000mah battery, what % level of charge is left when it reads 3700mv? and what does this article say is the best mv to not let it drop below when you start charging again in order to prolong battery life as oppose to run time? i usually charge at 30% so 3720mv on my extended battery but i feel maybe i can actually let it drop lower as the ideal charge voltage should be lower?

How to decide time out value according to temperature. How to check Battery open condition, What is Battery open condition normally.

Obviously I made a bit of a typo in my post above. It was of course meant to be 600mA, not 60mA. I’d be grateful for a quick response.

bu-409, charging, lithium-ion, battery, charger

Hi all, I have a phone whose original battery is Lithium-Ion 3.7V 1150mAh. The charger that came with the phone had an output of of 5.25V 60mA. Unfortunately I have lost the original charger but I do have spare charger whose output is 5V 1A. Being a noob when it comes to stuff like this, can somebody tell me if using my spare charger to charge the original battery would reduce the battery’s life in any way? Or would I be better off buying a manufacturer-approved one?

I purchased a flashlight that came with a battery and charger and it said to charge for 8-10 hours before initial use. I put it in the charger and about 12 hours later I remembered it. This is a 18650 battery. I put it in the flashlight and the flashlight didn’t work properly. As I screwed on the end cap the light was bright but as the cap was tightened it seemed to affect the flashlight into not working or working sporadically. I don’t know what to do at this point. looking for advice. Do I need a new battery now? New charger and battery? New flashlight also? I am tempted to return it to the store now, I am sad and wonder if it should have still worked or if I ruined it. ?

Started reading post then saw how many there were so decided to ask my question and comment instead of reading the hole list. Comment- I’d love to see Figure 3 charging to 4.1v instead of 4.2. Question- Although a saturation charge put’s more stress on Li-ion cells at 4.2 providing a little more capacity but shortening life cycles. Does the same thing apply when allowing a saturation charge at 4.1v? Also is there any chargers on the market that will allow you charge to 4.1 or 4.05v then stop charging once the battery voltage has caught up? Indicating saturation charge has started. Or are you just supposed to sit there with your volt meter? A hi voltage alarm would work hooked to the battery. Is there such a thing? Iv only seen low voltage alarms. hmmm. need to do more research.

@peteypablo, I don’t think it really makes any difference if you do 85/35 vs 75/25. Just make sure you giver her enough juice to make it through the day. As for the long term damage, no matter what you do, you’re always doing long term damage. That’s why they will eventually die, no matter what you do. It’s just a matter of trying to do the least damage possible. But as for catastrophic sudden damage, you can run the battery all the way down until the phone shuts off, and it will be fine. The battery itself has a protection chip in it to prevent it from being discharged below a level it could be recharged from. I let mine die all the way sometimes. I carry an extra battery or two in case I need them.

@Mihir, you can use an external, stand alone charger to charge the battery outside of the phone. You can either get one specifically made for your particular battery, or use a universal one. I bought the PPUCLIP by Lenmar. You can get it here: http://www.amazon.com/PPUCLIP-Universal-Charger-Adjustable-Contacts/dp/B001RGYZJS You can just use a voltmeter to see how much voltage there is in the battery. If the PPUCLIP will charge the battery, but you phone won’t, then it’s a bad phone. If the PPUCLIP won’t charge the battery, then it’s a bad battery.

Heys guys awesome information. Im in a problem and i need help. my iPhone 5 is dead due to low battery and didnt start after that. i have taken out my iPhone 5 Li-ion Polymer Battery and i want some way to externally charge it before putting it back on in the iPhone. i basically want to check if its the battery or charging port issue. plz help. thanks.

@vince thanks for the advice. So I assume charging it when it drops below 3.7v is ideal for longevity. I think for coming convenience I’ll charge to 80% and when it drops to less than 3.7v I’ll charge it. I think the problem is if take it off at 3.7v that’s only like 60% which isn’t enough to get metthrough the day. So its a trade off of whether I charge to 85% and charge at 35% or charge to 75% and charge at 25% I don’t really know which is better/worse for the battery stress wise? I guess I have to look at the voltage Ideally on the bottom end how long can I let the voltage go before recharging without it causing long term damage? I notice the voltage is around 3.4v at 30% so maybe I should charge at 40% if I’m at home and not in need of more juice. I use OS monitor app for checking battery temperature and voltage.

On mine, my my voltage would be about 3.7 to 3.6v when my phone would say it was dead. That kind of makes sense, as it was designed for a 1500mAh battery, and I’m using 3800mAh batteries now. The process of totally topping off the battery, then letting it drain all the way down to dead, and recharge it all the way back up again, is supposed to let the phone learn the battery’s capacity, to calibrate the phone to the battery. But it’s never worked for me on my phone. So I gave up trying it, or thinking about it too much, and now I just simply use the dang thing. As far as what’s optimal for the longevity, I mentioned 60/40, but really, if you could hold it at exactly 3.7v, which should be 50%, and charge it any time it drops below 3.7v, and stop charging it as soon as it gets over 3.7v, that would probably be optimal for longevity. Everything else is a tradeoff between optimal longevity and personal convenience. As for the saturation charge kicking in, I don’t really think there’s a certain type of charging that kicks in. I think it’s just that, let’s say your battery is down to 3.3v, and you connect it to a 4.2v charger that can put out 2A, (2000mA). As long as the voltage of the battery is less than the voltage of the charger, the only limiting factor on the current is how fast the charger can put it out. But once the battery reaches the same voltage as the charger, the current starts dropping, not because the charger is doing anything different, but because that’s just all the current the battery can draw. And again, I don’t think there’s a certain percentage where the battery reaches that point, but that it probably depends on how fast you are charging it. So if you’re charging it at only 500mA (standard computer USB), then by the time the battery first reaches the 4.2v saturation stage, it may already be 95% full, but if you charge it more quickly, like at 2000mA, then it might be only 50% full when it reaches the same point. And those aren’t real numbers. I’d imagine that the size of the battery also factors in to it, so what’s considered a fast charging rate for a small battery might be a slow rate for a larger capacity battery. And I don’t really think there’s any way for normal people like us to ever know whether any of this is making a difference or not. If one person’s battery pukes out after two years and another person’s doesn’t, how can we tell if it was because of charging habits vs usage habits, manufacturing differences, climate, etc.

@vince You mentioned that you would reach 1% and knew it was incorrect, at what voltage was it at the time? Im finding that the stock Samsung battery measure in the device ia relatively accurate in that when I use thw oem 2100mah battery and the oem 3000mah extended battery there ia a significant difference in run time between them as in it lasta longer by abou a 1/3rd and takes longer to charge to 80% I just don’t follow rhe article too well and want to know roughly what ia best like I said I charge from 30% to 80% as I assumed that was where satueation charge kicked in but you said I should look at the voltage but what amount wouls you say roughly? Also how low before it’s too low, it could well be I should be chsrging at 40% but I dont know what ia the ideal voltage ro charge to prolong battery life. Ia it the 3.6v and 3.8v like you said?

I uninstalled the app also. I didn’t see any advantage to it, and I know it was wrong, because it would report the same percentage that my phone would report, while I could tell from my voltage that I had a lot more juice left. And indeed, both my phone and the app would say, for example, that I was at 1% (it never says 0%), and it would last another day. So I uninstalled it. I don’t think there really is any optimum voltage at which to stop charging, as it’s just a trade-off. If you could start charging it as soon as it fell to 3.6v, and then stop charging it as soon as it reached 3.8v, that would be great, but how inconvenient! The manufacturers have decided that 4.2v is the optimum tradeoff between longevity, runtime, and convenience. So that’s what the chargers inside the phone, and most other stand-alone chargers, are designed for. Besides, how can you measure it? If you pulled it off the charger at 4.0v, as soon as you pulled it off, it would fall way below that. It probably starts the saturation phase as soon as it reaches 4.2v, but what real capacity it’s at at that point is unknown. If you were very slowly charging it, it might be mostly full. But if you were charging it quickly, then it might not even be half way yet. I think the only way to know for sure, would be to first make sure it really is completely fully topped off, then don’t use it, and time exactly how long it takes to go dead, which would be several days. This would tell you it’s maximum runtime, which would be indicative of the maximum capacity. Then you could quick charge it, and unplug it as soon as it hits 4.19, and see again how long it lasts. The ratio of the two would be how full it was when you unplugged it after fast charging. You could also repeat the test after slow charging, and see the difference. To really top it off, I’d leave it on the charger all night long.

@vince sorry for the late reply I unibstalled the app but from what I remember is if you click below the circle the little icon is clickable and bringa up battery info. ID be curious to know what yours says. I reread this document and im confused still what is the optimum voltage to take the charger off? Im trying to follow what you said about voltage rather than percentage. According to this document what is the voltage when it starts to add saturation charge? And what voltage should I be topping up the charge? At the moment I am doing it at 30% and taking it off at 80% but I need to look at the mv, what is the ideal mv I should start charging at and max mv I should take off for prolonging battery life long term?

Out of curiosity, I just installed the battery doctor app. I’m wondering what it says about mine. Where did you find the stat that tells you maximum power 2100mah?

@vince something you mentioned earlier about that with extended batteries the phone or apps may not recognise the extra capacity and therefore only charge it to the standard original battery capacity. I used battery doctor app to speed charge the extended battery but rrading the stats it says maximum power 2100mah which is incorrect as it’s a 3000mah battery.I did notive it charged quicker but maybe because it’s thibking it’s a 2100mah battery. I I want it to charge properly to 80% would I be better off just letting the Samsung s3 stanfard charge it instead? I cant be sure whether I’m even getting maximum capacity out of the battery or whether it’s only charging as if it’s a 2100mah battery. What do you think would be best?

Thankyou for the primer on lithium ion batteries. I guess I’ll just be charging my devices only partway so i can preserve service life. I’m happy to sacrifice run time in exchange for longer service life. Also, nice tip about turning off the device when charging. I suppose this is why so many GPS batteries have died. i was charging the battery while using it. I used to design battery chargers, and I like this article. It gives me enough to design the charger for this chemistry. There’s also chips from several manufacturers that will do the same.

hmm, strange. I guess I don’t know what to tell you about that. Yes, charging from USB should be slower, and that’s the point, but it should charge cooler, not warmer, so it sounds like something’s wrong.

@vince I find that if I charge via computer USB it overheats when I charge my blackberry with USB charger it charges really slow and overheats the cable and phone feels more. the issue is that 4.3 Android does not let you reduce brightness lower as it was on 4.1.2, im in the lowest brightness setting yet it’s still brighter on 4.3 than lowest setting on 4.1.2. I think that’s the biggest contributer to battery drain, the extra heat etc. im not sure what to do apart from going back down to 4.1.2 which is hassle. even with my extended battery it only lasts slightly more than using a normal 210mah battrry on 4.1.2. Very annoying tbh. Plus on 4.3 it charges slower and heats up quicker

I’ll never get an answer to my questions I sent some weeks ago. I am off and out for good. Thanks for good will anyway, to whoever thinks it may concern them.

I think the best thing you can do, for what you want, is to make sure you always charge it slowly. This probably means not using a wall or car charger, but only charging from a computer’s USB port. USB port standard maximum output is only 500mA, so that will help a lot. Regarding how I use it for GPS without damage, if the current being supplied equals the current being consumed by the device, then the battery really is neither being charged nor discharged. It’s just kind of sitting there idly. The phone will get warm from the screen and all it’s thinking, but the heat is not coming from the battery. Here are a couple apps you might find interesting. I don’t use either of them, so I can’t tell you anything about them, but they look like they’re written for you! https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?ID=com.manor.currentwidget https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?ID=com.ijinshan.kbatterydoctor_en

@vince yeah I agree it be a great science experiment and would help to answer some unaswered questions from doubters and limit the debates whether charging discharging initially improves the battery capacity. also vince as I mentioned before your idea about charging while using gps navigation in the car seems like a goos idea however the extra heat from both charging amd the screen on the whole time would kill the battery surely? Mine reaches 40C! Just having the screen on for an extended period of time at a higher brightness (tho air con I guess would bring it down but im from a cold environment) without even charginghow do you avoid the damage done by the extra heat? I think I’ll either by a satnav instead or juat rely on the extended battery I honestly don’t know how much votage charge my battery is getting but I like to avoid the 2 extremes of 4.2V charging and also below 20% where it puts strain on it.

@vince I think im going to follow your recommendation of looking at the voltage as a guude as oppose to the %. At the moment I charge it around 35% to 80% ie avoiding the saturation charge.however from your previous explanation I realised that % is not a good guide.at what % should I be charging from/to? I’ve noticed that it hangs around 3908mv below 80% which makes me thibk that maybe 77% is probably just as it hits the saturation charge level? What mv should I be looking at as a guide? I still don’t fully understand it but that’s not important

@peteypablo, I like to imagine charge as a thick goo, and a battery as a big shallow pan, which you only fill from one corner, and the voltage is the height of the goo at that corner of the pan. Because the goo is very thick and sticky, when you’re filling the pan, the corner that you’re filling will get full first, but if you wait long enough, all the goo will eventually even out throughout the pan. And when you drain the pan, that corner will drain first, while most of the rest of the pan still has a lot of goo in it. And if you look at the table at the top of this article, you’ll see that the voltage of the battery will reach 4.2v long before the battery is fully charged. The best way to tell how full a battery is from the voltage, is to wait an hour or more after it’s unplugged from the charger. This will give the charge time to saturate throughout the battery, and then when you measure the voltage, you’ll find it’s not as high as you first thought it was. I’ve noticed the same thing happens during discharge. If I’m using the phone for a long time, video, gps, or anything that keeps the screen on, the voltage will eventually read very low. But after I quit using it and wait for a while, the voltage will come back up on its own, even without being plugged in. So voltage can really only be used as a charge indicator after the battery has been sitting idle for a long time. While charging, a better indicator is how much current is flowing into the battery. When you first plug in your phone, the battery will suck up the juice as fast as your charger will provide it, until the voltage of the battery reaches the voltage of the charger, 4.2v. After that, the battery will continue to suck up more charge, but the rate at which it sucks it up will decline as the battery fills up, and will eventually slow to a trickle. There will always be some current due to the inefficiencies of charging, especially if the phone is on while being charged, but even if it is off. So the current will never reach zero, but when the current is close to zero and has stopped decreasing, then the battery is as full as it’s going to get.

@vince I was thinking about what you said about the phone noy recognising the 3000mah eztended battery and only charging a normal 2200mah full. is it possible Samsung would do that? I notice it’s only on. 70% charge and it’s already at 4120mv which seems a bit high? Would I need to get a battery monitor that charges it ptoperly

Hi peteypablo, I’m no expert, so I couldn’t tell you the science behind any of it. But from everything I’ve read, I can’t imagine why going through three discharge/recharge cycles would make any difference. But more importantly, I don’t know how you could even tell if it made a difference unless you timed exactly how long it took to completely die from a full charge each time. I suspect many people might assume the battery is lasting longer because the phone is reporting the capacity dropping more slowly, but the phone is only guessing based on usage. I suspect the three discharge/recharge cycles may be allowing the phone to learn better what the battery’s true capacity is, and thereby reporting it more accurately. I think the only way to know for sure is to make some device that draws a consistent amount of current from the battery, say 100ma, and you time exactly how long it takes the battery to go from 4.2v to 3.2v, then completely charge it back up again, and repeat the test three times. This would be a great experiment for some kid’s science project, don’t you think?

It wont affect the potential of the battery as in ID be missing out? I have a Samsung oem extended battety 3000mah so I assume it’s made as the original 2100 onr it came with. longevity is more important to me so I think I’ll just charge it from 30-80% now ive done thr first 2 charges to 100%.unless there’s a good reason to do a full charge discharge

@vince thanks for the response I see you’re of the train of thought that the initial charge discharge cycle makes no difference but im referring to people who have actually tested out this discharge full chargr cycle for the first 3 charges and actually have results to prove it.do you think it literally is just a calibration thing OR the fact apparently after a few charges it suddenly grts better (I noticed this on my 2100mah Samsung s3 battrry as mentionex the original one, I didnt charge discharge but after the 3rd charge it inexplicably got bettrr. Do you think the reason for the results people have had for lithium ion chsrgr discharge cyclrs initially is just coincidence and it would have happened anyway after 3 charges partially? What I cant figure out is WHY after 3 charges do lithium ion batteries perform better like what is the science behind it? I cannot find the reason on the internet or even a possible theory. I agree with your plugging in the csr charger while using gps in the car but I find that woukd damage the battery even quicker esp in a Samsung s3 as it gets really hot while in use and charging so wouldnt make sense as any extra gains u get from not using the battrry while plugged in is more than cancelled out by the extra heat damaging thr battery. Maybe yours is different. Basically as you are saying that even if I don’t do the initial full charge discharge

Hi petepablo, From everything I’ve read, the idea about fully charging and discharging to get the most out of it is from the old NiCad cells, and is not applicable to Lithium Ion. But old habits die hard and people who don’t know the difference may still recommend wheat they heard in the past, even though it is no longer relevant. I’ve read that LiIon only have so many cycles of life, and so intentionally discharging it like that only shortens its lifespan. In my opinion, the best way to make the battery last the longest is to not use it, or to use it as little as possible. For example, if I’m driving down the road using it for GPS with the screen on, that requires a lot of power, so I have it plugged in during that time. If I use a weak enough power source, it might never charge at that rate. That is, the phone is using energy as fast as the power cord is supplying it, and the amount going to or from the battery is minimal, so I’m not subjecting the battery to any charging cycles. Another thing to do is to not hold the battery at full charge, because apparently that puts a lot of stress on the battery. If you could find an app that limited charging to 75%, then you could leave it plugged in all the time. I don’t know of such an app, but I haven’t looked. Now in answer to another of your questions, it’s very inaccurate to assume remaining charge based on voltage, because the voltage drop during a constant discharge from full the empty is not linear. The voltage drops a lot at first, then almost levels out for most of the cycle, and then drops quickly near the end. So if your device is using the voltage to estimate charge, that might explain why yours quickly goes from 100% to 80% as soon as you unplug it. Because of this, many devices sample the current being used, and use this to count how much energy is used and remaining. Imagine if you know your car can get 400 miles to a tank of gas on average, and you only keep track of how far you drive to estimate how much gas you have left, instead of using your fuel gauge. That’s kind of how my phone works. But because that may change over the life of the battery, some people want to recalibrate their phone from time to time. This is where the complete discharge/charge/discharge procedure comes in. It doesn’t do anything to the battery but wear it out faster, but it helps the phone learn how much use the battery can provide on a full charge, so that it may better estimate the remaining capacity during normal use. It’s hard to tell how the battery’s doing without timing it all the way until the phone dies on its own. Especially using an extended battery. Since my phone doesn’t understand how I can possibly have this much capacity (I use 3800mAh batteries instead of the 1500mAh the phone was designed for), the reading will go down to 1% and still last for another day or more. Now here’s another thing to consider with extended batteries: The hone might pump a full normal battery’s worth of charge into it, and read full, even though the extended battery can actually hold much more. So that’s why many extended battery instructions say to keep it on the charger for a longer time, even after the phone says it’s full. I hope this info is helpful. Enjoy!

@vince I have a couple questions I hope u can answer, I recently bought an extended battery for my Samsung s3 3000mah. Longevity is more important to me than run time (extended battery I don’t need to charge to 100% anymore as it should easily last a day using only 50%) My questions are what are the best way to charge it upon new? It’s a lithium ion battery and I’ve been reading conflicting Комментарии и мнения владельцев and posts with people saying to cycle it for the first 3 times, full charge discharge etc to maximise the capacity of the battery or for it to reach it’s potential. Do you think that is just superficial as in it’s a calibration thing or do you believe it actually might increase/reach the full potential capacity by doing such initial cycles? I thought letting battery charge to 100% and fully discharge would damage the batteries longevity even if only done 3 times? What’s your take on that? Also, if I don’t do the initial charge discharge full cycles would that stop me getting the maximum potential of the battery long term? I’m in 2 minds what to do and thinking to do it just to be on the safe side. So far I used it to 18% then fully charged overnight for over 8 hours (the first charge) thensecond I charged from 38% to 100% (but took it off charge when it said 100% but the light hadn’t turned green) do you think that would impact my battery in any wayfor better or worse? Everywhere I read says it takes a few charge discharges before the battery reaches it’s full capacity. what’s the science behind that? I can’t find a proper explanation I did notice that with my first original 2100mah battery where it got better after 3 charges. Would me not following the procedure have a negative impact on the battery after the 3 initial charges is up? Ie if I don’t do it now it’s too late. I’ve noticed my extended battery drops from 100% to 80% very quickly so seems like it’s not lasting as long I’d hope it or should be doing. Can’t explain. Seems better between 80% to 40% but still unsure, feel like it should be lasting longer than it is.

Any idea what has been removed? I’ve been lurking around here for a couple years now, and don’t recall reading anything before that’s not there now, though that’s not to say I would remember it anyway. I think I’ve learned just about everything I’m going to from this site, but if there was more, I’d be curious to know what it was.

Why has information been removed from this article? There used to be detailed charging information, but it has been removed, why?

Can You Recharge CR2032 Batteries?

If you have a battery-powered device that uses CR2032 batteries, you may be wondering if it is possible to recharge them.

The CR2032 is a tiny battery used in a variety of devices, such as car key fobs, calculators, small flashlights, and so forth [1].

The short answer is yes, you can recharge CR2032 batteries. However, there are a few things to keep in mind before you do so.

For one, not all CR2032 batteries are rechargeable. If your device came with non-rechargeable batteries, it is best to stick with those. Rechargeable batteries may not last as long as non-rechargeable ones and they may also require special care when charging.

Secondly, even if your CR2032 batteries are rechargeable, it is important to consult your device’s manual before attempting to recharge them. This is because some devices are not designed to work with rechargeable batteries and could be damaged by attempts to do so.

In the following blog post, our tech-savvy experts will explore the answer to that question and provide some tips on how to recharge CR2032 batteries.

A Deeper Look At CR2032 Batteries

A CR2032 battery is a type of lithium-ion cell battery utilized inside electronic devices. These batteries are frequently found in tiny electronics, such as calculators, watches, cameras, camcorders, electronic games, and personal digital assistants. Even some hearing aids and keyless entry systems for automobiles use CR2032 batteries.

Lithium-ion batteries like the CR2032 are different from older types of batteries in that they can be recharged. In fact, you can recharge a CR2032 battery up to 500 times before it needs to be replaced.

  • First, you need to use a CR2032 battery charger specifically designed for lithium-ion batteries. You can’t use a standard NiCd or NiMH battery charger, as this could damage the battery;
  • Second, you should only recharge the battery when it is completely discharged. Recharging a partially discharged CR2032 battery can shorten its lifespan;

CR2032 Battery Specifications

The chemical composition of the battery is represented by the first letter, “C”, which stands for Chromium (however, while that was the initial make-up, CR batteries may now be manufactured from a variety of different elements, with Lithium being the most prevalent).

The next two digits in the sequence (in this case, “2” and “0”), tell us the coin’s diameter in millimeters. This particular battery has a diameter of 20mm.

The last two digits, “3” and “2”, represent the batter’s height in millimeters. But to get the height, divide the number by 10 first.

This means that the height of 3.2 millimeters is 32 divided by 10.

So, the “CR” in the name designates the battery’s chemistry, while the “2032” refers to its diameter and height (in millimeters). While CR2032 batteries are not rechargeable, there are some alternative battery types that can be recharged.

For example, 18650 lithium-ion batteries are larger than CR2032s but can be recharged up to 700 times. If you need a rechargeable option for your device, consider switching to a different type of battery altogether [2].

CR2032 Battery Voltage And Current Capacity Ratings

A voltage is required for all electrical and electronic devices to function. The device may as well be a paperweight if no electricity is supplied. The CR2032 has a voltage range of 3 to 3.7 volts.

The second feature is current capacity, which is measured in watts and indicates the battery’s total storage capacity (much like how much water a bottle can hold if water is the current).

Larger batteries are often labeled in Amp-Hours (Ah), while smaller batteries (such as CR2032 coin cell batteries) have their capacities listed in Milliampere-Hours (mAh). The CR2032 has a current capacity of between 230 and 1400 milliamperes [3].

To put that into perspective, a CR2032 battery can hold enough current to power a small electronic device for about an hour or two.

In general, higher voltage and current capacities mean that the battery will last longer before it needs to be recharged. But this also means that the battery will be larger and more expensive.

If you need a long-lasting battery for your device, consider opting for a higher voltage and capacity model. Otherwise, a CR2032 should suffice.

Are CR2032 Primary Or Secondary Batteries?

There’s some confusion about whether CR2032 batteries are primary or secondary cells.

Primary batteries can’t be recharged and must be thrown away after use. Secondary batteries can be recharged over and over again.

So, which category do CR2032 batteries fall into? The answer is that it depends on the specific battery in question.

Some CR2032 batteries are designed to be used once and then thrown away. These are primary cells and cannot be recharged.

Other CR2032 batteries are designed to be rechargeable. These secondary cells can be charged using a special charger (you can’t just use a regular AA battery charger).

Can You Recharge CR2032 Batteries?

When recharging a CR2032 battery, you can only recharge the rechargeable type because they are designed to be charged and utilized multiple times. LIR2032 is the name of the rechargeable version of the CR2032.

The letter “LI” is a chemical sign for Lithium-Ion, which is the most frequent chemical in rechargeable batteries.

You may not attempt to charge a non-rechargeable battery as doing so is dangerous and might result in an explosion.

How To Check If A CR2032 Can Be Charged Or Not?

If you have a CR2032 battery, the best way to check if it can be charged or not is to look for a label on the battery.

The label should say “Do Not Charge” or something similar. If the label does not say anything about charging, then the battery is probably not rechargeable.

Another way to tell if a CR2032 battery is rechargeable is by looking at the color of the positive and negative terminals.

If the positive and negative terminals are different colors, then the battery is probably not rechargeable.

Do Rechargeable CR2032 Batteries Require Special Chargers?

Yes, you’ll need special coin battery charging gear that can handle CR2032 batteries, particularly the CR2032 battery size. Because rechargeable CR2032 batteries are built of Lithium-Ion, they require even greater attention when it comes to charging.

When a battery has reached full charge, most battery chargers provide trickle charging. When a Lithium-Ion battery has fully charged, though, it is unable to accept any more charge.

As a result, when the battery has arrived at full capacity, the charger immediately cuts off the charging process.

This is why you’ll need a CR2032 coin cell battery charger that has an automatic shut-off function to prevent overcharging.

These types of chargers are readily available online and in many stores.

When shopping for a CR2032 coin cell battery charger, make sure to find one that is compatible with your country’s voltage (220V for Europe, 110V for North America, etc.).

How To Recharge CR2032 Batteries:

1) Using A Battery Charger

You will need to purchase a battery charger that is specifically designed to recharge CR2032 batteries. Make sure to follow the instructions that come with the charger.

Most chargers will have a light that turns green when the battery is done charging. Overcharging the battery may shorten its lifespan.

If you do not have a CR2032-specific charger, you can use a generic AA/AAA battery charger. However, you will need to be careful not to overcharge the battery as this could damage it.

To charge the battery using this method, connect the positive end of the AAA/AA charger to the positive end of the CR2032 battery and likewise for the negative ends.

  • To turn off the item, press and hold the “Power” button;
  • When the battery in your electronic device is no longer functioning, replace it with a new CR2032 battery. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for replacing the battery from your specific product;
  • To charge a coin cell battery, insert it into a battery charger. If the instructions for the battery housing unit say to place the negative or positive terminal of the battery up, do so. To assure equal and proper charging, some multiple battery chargers require all slots to be filled;
  • Connect the charger. The batteries will immediately begin to charge once connected. Charge the battery until it is completely charged, as instructed by the manufacturer. Most battery chargers have a red and green light that tells you when your batteries are charging or are fully charged. When a battery charger has a red light, that means the batteries are still being charged; when there is no longer any green light on, it indicates that the batteries are fully charged;

2) Using A Power Adapter

This is a slower method to recharge your CR2032 batteries, but it will work in a pinch.

  • A power adapter that outputs DC voltage of between 200mA to 500mA and has a male USB Type-A connector;
  • An alligator clip test lead or some other way to connect the power adapter to the battery;
  • Connect the positive (red) lead of the alligator clip test lead to the positive end of the CR2032 battery;
  • Connect the negative (black) lead of the alligator clip test lead to the negative end of the USB cable;
  • Plug the USB cable into the power adapter;
  • Turn on the power adapter (if it has an ON/OFF switch);
  • Wait for the CR2032 battery to recharge (this could take a few hours);
  • Once the CR2032 battery is fully charged, disconnect the alligator clip test lead from the battery and then unplug the USB cable from the power adapter;

FAQ:

Are 2032 lithium batteries rechargeable?

The LiR2032 is a rechargeable lithium battery with a critical influence on the quality of life of the device. They also have a higher charging voltage, ranging from 3.2 to 3.9V [4].

Can button cell batteries be recharged?

Button cells may be divided into rechargeable and non-rechargeable varieties. The kind of battery is indicated by the English letters on a button-cell battery, while the number indicates the size. The diameter is represented by the first two digits, while the thickness is represented by the last two digits.

Typically, button cells are one-time-use (i.e., non-rechargeable, or galvanic battery). They are part of the dry battery family despite their distinct shape (AA, AAA, and AAAA).

Small Bluetooth headsets, for example, generally include rechargeable button cells (also known as secondary batteries) [5].

Are Energizer 2032 batteries rechargeable?

Up to 500 charge/discharge cycles are expected for each 2032 coin cell by Energizer, which can be charged up to 500 times before needing replacement.

How long does the CR2032 battery last?

Battery life is a phenomenon that depends on several variables, including material quality, storage conditions, storage duration, humidity, physical harm, and temperature. Ideally, you’d want a battery constructed of high-quality materials that have been stored in a cool and dry place with no visible damage [6].

When properly stored, Energizer states that their lithium coin cell batteries have a shelf life of up to 10 years. This will be determined by the application in terms of service life.

A CR2032 battery in a car key fob may survive up to 4-5 years before needing to be replaced since usage is quite infrequent.

How do you charge a coin battery?

To charge a coin battery, you will need a charging cradle and a power source. Place the coin battery into the charging cradle, and then plug the power source into the charging cradle. The charging process will begin automatically and will take approximately two hours to complete. Once the charging process is finished, unplug the power source from the charging cradle and remove the coin battery.

It is important to note that you should never attempt to recharge a CR2032 battery if it is not designed to be recharged. Doing so could damage the battery and cause it to leak or catch fire. If you have any questions about whether or not your CR2032 battery can be recharged, please contact the manufacturer for more information.

What is the longest-lasting CR2032 battery?

The Duracell 2032 3V Lithium Coin Battery is a CR 2032 battery that lasts 10 years in storage and is difficult to outdo.

This battery is recommended for use in watches, fitness devices, and glucose monitors.

The CR2032 batteries are also used in remote controls, keyless entry systems, and other small electronic devices [7].

How do you revive a dead button battery?

In many situations, coin lithium batteries are designed to be used only once. To put it another way, you merely use them once and then discard them. Secondary lithium-ion cells like rechargeable CR2032 technology have made it possible to create. These are batteries that can be recharged.

Why are button batteries not rechargeable?

The reason button batteries can’t be recharged is due to the battery’s chemistry. Button batteries are made with lithium, which is a highly reactive element. Lithium reacts with water to produce heat and hydrogen gas. This reaction is what powers the button battery.

However, this reaction also causes the lithium to slowly degrade over time. When the lithium degrades, it can no longer hold a charge and must be replaced. For this reason, button batteries are not rechargeable and must be disposed of properly when they are no longer working.

Are lithium coin cells rechargeable?

The answer is no, you can’t recharge lithium coin cells. Lithium-ion batteries, like the CR2032, are not designed to be recharged. If you attempt to recharge a lithium coin cell, it will likely cause permanent damage to the battery and could potentially be dangerous.

So if you find yourself with a dead CR2032 battery, your best bet is to simply replace it with a new one. While CR2032 batteries are relatively inexpensive, it’s still a good idea to conserve them as much as possible. One way to do this is by using a power-saving mode on devices that use them, such as LED lights.

Is 2032 the same as CR2032?

A 2032 battery is 20mm in diameter and 3.2mm thick.

  • CR2032 and BR2032 (the capitalization, or absence thereof, for the letters, does not matter);
  • CR2032 is the same as a CR2032 and BR2032 is the same as a BR2032;

What battery can replace CR2032?

If you need a CR2032 replacement, the Panasonic BR2032 is a good option. This battery has a higher capacity than the CR2032 (220 mAh vs 210 mAh) and can be used in any device that requires a CR2032 battery.

The Duracell DL2032 is another good option for replacing a CR2032 battery. This battery has a slightly lower capacity than the CR2032 (200 mAh vs 210 mAh) but it is more widely available and usually costs less than the Panasonic BR2032.

Are all CR2032 batteries lithium?

To put it another way, three types of 2032 batteries are all lithium batteries, since they are made up of various chemicals. This does not negate the fact that each lithium battery is equal. For example, you can interchange most CR2032 coin cell batteries with a BR2032 type lithium battery without causing any harm.

How can you tell if a CR2032 battery is good?

The simplest way to check if a CR2032 battery is good is to use a multimeter Set your multimeter to the “DC voltage” setting and touch the probes to the positive and negative terminals of the battery. If the reading is above 0.0 volts, then the battery is still good.

Another way to test a CR2032 battery is to use it in a device that uses CR2032 batteries. If the device powers on and seems to work normally, then the battery is probably still good.

bu-409, charging, lithium-ion, battery, charger

Do lithium-ion batteries degrade if not used?

Lithium-ion batteries will degrade if left unused for long periods of time, even if they are not inserted into a device. This is because the electrolyte solution inside the battery begins to evaporate when it’s not being used, and this causes the battery’s internal structure to break down [9].

However, you don’t need to worry about this too much with CR2032 batteries, as they are typically used in devices that are regularly used (such as remotes and computer keyboards). If you have a CR2032 battery that’s been sitting around for a while, it should still work fine.

Double 18650 Battery Charge Shield. 3V 5V DC Supply

This handy battery shield can be used to power all of your science and electronics hobby projects. Great for teachers. no more wasting AA batteries! Just re-charge your 18650 lithium batteries over night and you are ready for a full day of class room experiments. With outputs of 3V and 5V DC you can use this shield with a variety of circuits with lightbulbs, buzzers, DC motors, LEDs, etc.

  • Outputs: 3 x 3V, 3 x 5V DC and 1 x standard USB
  • Input (for recharging): standard micro USB connector (same as charging your cell phone)
  • Max current: 2.2 A
  • On/off switch
  • Charging indication LEDs
  • requires two 18650 lithium rechargeable batteries (not included)

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1.09 18650 Lithium Cell 3.7V Battery Holder with Leads 59.95 3V-12V DC Variable Power Supply 4.99 Power Pro DC Adapter. 12V 1000mA

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RAVPower CR123A 3V Lithium Battery

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Description

NOTE: Batteries Can Not Be Recharged!

Long-Lasting Reliable PowerEach battery houses an impressive 1,500mAh capacity with low internal resistance. This ensures you can efficiently power your equipment for an extended period of time. Save the trouble of changing batteries for years to come.

Supports Most AppliancesInvest in a pack of RAVPower CR123A Batteries that can be used to power everyday appliances with the capacity of 1500mAh / 3.0V (4.5Wh). Pair it up with your Polaroid, Arlo cameras, flashlights, microphones, and most household medical equipment to be prepared for any emergencies. Replace CR123, DL123A, K123A, EL123AP, 5018LC, CR17345 and CR17335 with 3V voltage; Replace RCR123A, RCR17335, VL123A and ML123A with 3.7V voltage.

Superior Performance in Any WeatherBenefit from unconditional convenience and consistent performance in either freezing Arctic conditions or a scorching desert. Our batteries can beat the most extreme weather ranging from.40°C to 85°C /.49°F to 185°F.

Up to 10 Year Shelf LifePremium low self-discharge mechanism keeps for nearly 10 years of idleness without draining the battery. Never get stuck ever again because of a dead battery.

Greener and SaferEnvironment-friendly Li-ion batteries are your first step to a greener world. Containing no harmful chemicals, RAVPower batteries are guarded with short circuit, over current, and voltage surge Smart protections that are gentler to the earth and safer for you.

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