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EV Charging 101

Installation of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations and infrastructure is becoming a standard requirement by energy codes and AHJs for most new construction projects. It’s typically included to receive credit for green building certifications, such as LEED. As part of the code study process for each project, the applicable energy code and local code ordinances need to be reviewed to verify what EV charging infrastructure may be necessary for the project. In some cases, we may find a local ordinance that exceeds the standard energy code requirements, such as the City of Denver. The Denver Building and Fire Code establish different EV charging and infrastructure requirements, based on different occupancies and building usage. Let’s walk through an example of how to determine the number of EV charges required for a project and before we begin, it’s important to understand the various definitions laid forth in the code. There are several different terms related to EV charging, and EV charging infrastructure. Section C202 defines each of these:

ELECTRIC VEHICLE SUPPLY EQUIPMENT (EVSE)

“Equipment used for the purpose of transferring electric energy to a battery or other energy storage device in an electric vehicle.” This is the actual EV charger itself. There are several different types of EV chargers, these are defined by their charging level.

LEVEL 1 (slow charging). Capable of charging at 20 Amps on a 120V, single-phase branch circuit. Level 1 chargers are typically used for residential applications.

LEVEL 2 (accelerated charging). Charges of this level are capable of charging at 40 Amps or higher on a 208V or 240V, single-phase branch circuit. Level 2 chargers are often used on commercial projects, and can also be used for residential applications.

LEVEL 3 (fast/Rapid charging). Chargers at this level are capable of fast charging on 100 Amp or higher, 480V, three-phase branch circuits. Level 3 chargers are typically used at designated charging stations, such as Tesla Supercharging stations.

ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) CAPABLE SPACE

“Electric Vehicle (EV) Capable Spaces are designated parking spaces where a basic level of infrastructure is installed to accommodate future electric vehicles.”

Section C405.10.5.2 defines the basic level of infrastructure required to be:

  • Installation of no less than 1” conduit
  • Installation of pull rope for future conductors
  • The conduit shall be sealed at a capped junction box
  • Dedicated space for electrical distribution equipment to serve future EVSE

ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) READY SPACE

“Electric Vehicle (EV) Ready Spaces are designated parking spaces where the ESVE infrastructure has been installed and is made ready for electric vehicle charging.” EV ready spaces are similar to EV-capable spaces but have more installation requirements.

These requirements include (section C405.10.5.1):

  • Installation of no less than 1” conduit
  • Conductors installed and
  • Terminated in a 40 Amp NEMA receptacle
  • OR to capped junction box
  • OR to an EV charger

Now that we’re familiar with Denver’s EV charging definitions, let’s move into Section C405.10. This section tells us the quantity of EV-ready spaces, EV capable spaces, and EVSE installed spaces. The code requires us to determine the quantity based upon the total provided new and existing parking spaces for the building. It is also important to note that a minimum of 70% of the required EV parking spaces shall be amongst the 50% of parking spaces located closest to the intended occupant entrance to the building.

There are two tables shown in this section. These tables require a minimum of Level 2 charging:

For this example, let’s say we have a Group B occupancy with 100 parking spots. according to Table C405.10.2, we will need 10% of spaces to be EV ready spaces, another 10% of spaces to be EV capable, and only 5% of spaces to have an installed EV charger.

Level 2 Chargers Only:

EV Ready 10 SpotsEV Capable 10 SpotsEV Charger 5 Spots

C405.10.2 allows an exception for A,B,E,I,M, and S-2 occupancies if a Level 3 charger is installed. The exception allows a maximum of 5 spaces to be reduced from the number of installed EV chargers if a Level 3 charger is installed, and there’s not less than one Level 2 EV ready space.

Because Level 3 chargers operate at 480V, they may not be applicable to every project. However, for this example let’s say that the building has a 480/277V service. Using the exception, we’re able to reduce the number of installed EV chargers from 10 down to only 5. This exception may be advantageous if there’s a limited 208V load available, or if there are constructability concerns.

Level 2 3 Chargers:

EV Ready 10 Spots EV Capable 10 Spots (Level 2) EV Charger 1 spot (Level 3)

After determining the number of EV spaces, it’s important to coordinate the locations with the Owner and architect. Also, it is important to relay this information because some Owners may want even more EV chargers than what the code requires. For large projects, coordination with the local utility company may be necessary. Level 2 and 3 chargers draw a large load and require a continuous load demand factor. This could affect the electrical service and transformer size. A larger transformer or even a secondary connection cabinet may be required.

There are several other factors to consider with EV chargers, such as low-voltage cabling, conduit considerations, and costs. Many EV chargers require a data connection as well as power. Typically, a 1” conduit is used for low voltage cabling and 1” to 2” for power conductors. While these conduits are small, it’s still important to be mindful of how they will be routed and EV chargers can also have a significant cost impact. The quantity required may increase the electrical service size, there may be more labor and material needed, not to mention the cost of the EV chargers themselves. All these factors and more can affect the overall project budget, so it’s important to coordinate early on. At AE Design, these are coordination items that we address early, so there are no surprises later in the project!

EV chargers and infrastructure requirements are becoming commonplace in many jurisdictions. It’s necessary to review local building and energy codes to determine how the requirements will affect the project. Some jurisdictions, such as the City of Denver require more EV chargers and infrastructure than standard energy codes. This can present new challenges, but here at AE Design, we have worked on projects with one EV charger to as many as 300 chargers!

If you have any design, code, or construction questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us – we’ll help you out!

Helpful Definitions

ELECTRIC VEHICLE SUPPLY EQUIPMENT (EVSE) The electrical conductors and associated equipment external to the electric vehicle that provide a connection between the premises wiring and the electric vehicle to provide electric vehicle charging

ELECTRIC VEHICLE CAPABLE SPACE A designated parking space that is provided with conduit sized for a 40-amp, 208/240-Volt dedicated branch circuit from a building electrical panelboard to the parking space and with sufficient physical space in the same building electrical panelboard to accommodate a 40-amp, dual-pole circuit breaker

ELECTRIC VEHICLE READY SPACE. A parking space that is provided with one 40-amp, 208/240- Volt dedicated branch circuit for electric vehicle supply equipment that is terminated at a receptacle, junction box, or electric vehicle supply equipment within the parking space

ELECTRIC VEHICLE SUPPLY EQUIPMENT (EVSE) INSTALLED SPACE. A parking space with electric vehicle supply equipment capable of supplying a 40-amp, dedicated circuit rated at 208/240 Volt from a building electrical panelboard

ELECTRIC VEHICLE FAST CHARGER. Electric vehicle supply equipment with a minimum power output of 20 kW

ELECTRIC VEHICLE LOAD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. A system designed to allocate charging capacity among multiple electric vehicle supply equipment at a minimum of 8 amps per charger

All-in-One Guide to install Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles in your accommodation

We have already explained to you the reasons why you should install charging stations for electric vehicles in your hotel, restaurant of Bed Breakfast… But how can this be done? What are the steps to follow? Here is complete manual for those who want to invest in electric mobility. A simple guide, in 10 steps, to install charging infrastructure for the EV.

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reasons to implement a charging infrastructure for electric vehicles

Electromobile guests decide on their holiday destination based on the charging infrastructure that is available. […] many hotels and restaurants already try to attract this growing target group. In addition to that, classical holiday ideals like for instance silence, nature and relaxation can be applied directly to electric mobility as well. (Bayern innovativ)

The growing number of electric vehicles reflects the importance of electric mobility within the field of tourism. Electric car drivers are attracted if a proper charging infrastructure is available in a destination, accommodation or touristic place. For this reason, f your hotel can offer a e-charge service, you are able to acquire new customers.

But the implementation of charging stations for touristic needs offers numerous further advantages.

  • People that are driving electric cars are usually wealthier. As a consequence, they are not only responsible for sales increases due to the services they consume (i.e. payment of charging processes), but also for the added value they create during their stay due to their awareness for higher quality.
  • For purchasing a proper charging station, attractive regional and / or national subsidies are usually available. Partially, financial grants can be also used for preparational activities.
  • A company or destination is able to create an unique selling proposition by implementing a proper charging infrastructure. Thereby, an increase in their competitiveness can be expected.
  • Furthermore, a positive and sustainable image can be created by enforcing actions related to electric mobility. Companies can therefore position themselves as especially innovative.

All-in-One Guide to implement a charging station for electric car in your hotel

For the implementation of charging stations for electric vehicles there are 10 points to consider, ranging from building permits to invoicing, from possible financing for the electrical system. But let’s proceed step by step and see in detail everything you need.

Building permits for charging stations for electric vehicles

The intention of realising a charging station may has to be permitted by considering building law or has to be reported to the authority responsible. This has to be clarified in advance by taking into account the relevant national conditions. Thus, it is important to consider enough time in advance that may be needed for an official process.

Before starting implementation work, it is important to check whether building permits are required in your region.

The electrical system

Before buying a charging station for electric vehicles it is essential to pay attention to:

  • Load capacity of the electrical system
  • Available load (can be determined by invoices or by contacting the network operator): there must be a sufficient capacity for the charging station. If the load capacity needs to be increased, check the requirements of the grid operator. Usually, from 7.4 kW upwards, a three-phase network connection is required.
  • Available space in the electrical cabinet: it may be necessary to insert a separate fuse for the electrical circuit for the charging station.

Furthermore it is essential to take into consideration the peaks of use of the electrical system, considering all the devices used inside the hotel and the energy required for recharging, which will depend on the power of the station.

Consider the charge times

In the place where guests can recharge their cars in a short time (restaurants, spas, supermarkets, etc.), it is necessary to supply more energy, to allow the car to be recharged faster, while in the places where guests have more time to recharge (hotels and bb, where recharging can take place during the night) requires less energy to recharge the car.

On average, a full charge requires these times:

  • at 3.7 kW: 5-6 hours
  • at 7.4 kW: 3 hours
  • at 11 kW: 2 hours
  • at 22 kW: 1 hour

Naturally it is necessary to be followed by a specialized electrician, what we can tell you is that it is necessary to connect the charging station separately starting from the electrical panel, without further services connected to the electric line and that depending on the required charge capacity and the length of the cable (distance between charging station and distribution box) the size of the power line also changes.

Technical equipment for charging stations

The charging stations should be equipped with the European standard plug (Type 2 IEC62196), in order to be able to recharge as many electric vehicle models as possible. If the vehicle is not equipped with a Type 2 plug, an adapter cable may be used.

We also advise you to choose a charging station equipped with all the necessary protection devices and a recharge counter, so you’ll be able to measure individual energy uses and the related tariffs.

Positioning of the charging station

Where to place the charging station? The first things you need to think about are safety, accessibility and comfort of your guests.

In general it is suggested that the length of the electric line (ie the distance from the charging station to the next distribution box) is as short as possible. It is ideal to place the charging station halfway between two parking lots (with sufficient space in front) to allow charging of different types of electric vehicles.

If the charging station is not waterproof, it is necessary to provide adequate weather protection. To provide a more comfortable charging experience, you may also decide to light and protect the charging point. Remember that if you have chosen a Smart charging station, your Internet connection will have to reach the charging area.

Don’t think only about today, but consider the possibilities of expansion.

Payment system

If you decide to offer a paid service, the electric vehicle charging station will have to have a counting system, so you can calculate every single use. For hotels, farmhouses and BBs we recommend entering the cost of charging on the room bill, as a service charge. This makes the guest payment experience easier. Alternatively, the best solution is a payment option by credit/debit card/PayPal that does not require any registration.

In general, the cost of the service can be counted in these ways:

  • Free (free service to attract new customers)
  • Cost measured based on the electric current used (in KWh)
  • Cost measured based on recharge time
  • A mix between KWh and time
  • One-time parking fee

You are not selling energy, but a recharge service, so you are free to choose the price. It may be reasonable to ask for € 5 more per night for those who intend to park and recharge in the parking space reserved for electric vehicles, but it might be even smarter to offer the service for free, considering that the cost to recharge a car is minimal. By doing so, you will guarantee an ever-increasing number of electric car tourists in the coming years, who will select your hotel because in line with their needs.

Load management

Operating principle of load management. Source: https://orsted.de/energieloesungen/energie-lexikon/lastmanagement

It is better to buy a charging station that has integrated the load management function (especially for accommodation facilities that have different sources of energy consumption).

The load management system analyzes load peaks and starts vehicle recharging processes when other connected users need little energy.

Use of electricity from renewable sources

To be truly respectful of the environment, electric vehicles must be recharged with clean energy, that is coming from renewable sources (photovoltaic, wind or hydroelectric). For this the installation of a charging station must be accompanied by the choice of a 100% clean electricity supplier, or by the installation of a clean energy production plant.

Investment costs

The main costs to consider are:

  • costs for connection to the network or for its extension (if necessary) and for increasing the network power;
  • preparatory work by the electrician;
  • if necessary, excavation and foundation work;
  • purchase of the charging station (hardware and software);
  • maintenance.

Financing opportunities

There are numerous opportunities for contributions and funding, check which ones are available in your region.

Communication Promotion

Adequately communicating the presence of the electric vehicle charging service is essential to attract new customers and to let guests know the details of the service offered. You can use numerous channels: you can report it on your website, in our platform, in the various tourist promotion sites, with press releases and in social media.

Furthermore, it is essential to publish your own recharge point on dedicated maps and web-apps, such as:

This with regard to online presence: we also advise you to highlight the charging station with a sign and communicate to customers the choice of respect for the environment, for example emphasizing that the electricity is 100% renewable.

FAQ – Frequently Asked Questions about EV Charging Stations

How much does it cost to install an EV charging station in your hotel?

The 3 main types of costs to consider are:

  • Electric-car station acquisition. The cost depends on power level, ability to resist degradation, etc.
  • Electric-car Station installation. This cost depends on power level and on the specific location. It can vary enormously depending on the specific national / local administrative hurdles and authorization processes.
  • Maintenance and operation. This cost depends on:
  • Contract with electricity provider (depending on power level)
  • Electricity
  • Maintenance and repairs
  • Recurring costs for payment means
  • Interoperability costs
  • Customer enquiries.

Are there government grants for EV charging stations?

Generally speaking, depending on the location and time, public funding schemes may exist to partially cover purchase and installation costs. Maintenance and operation costs are in most cases excluded. A fraction of the costs (marginal in most cases for the time being) may be retrieved through usage fees.

Clicking on this link you can download a presentation with detailed information about Public Funding possibilities to cover e-cars station’s installation costs in Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland.

What kind of plugs are there for electric cars?

There are 3 European Standarized connectors types and 1 additional type of plug.

The 3 EU-standardized plugs are:

The additional type is:

What voltage do electric cars charge at?

  • SLOW charging (3-8 hours for 100 km) Lower cost /- 1 customer per day (very) Low price for customer (0 to 2€ per session)
  • ACCELERATED charging 22 kVA AC (45-60 min for 100 km)
  • FAST charging (20-30 min for 100 km) High cost (infrastructure operation) (potentially) many customers per day Higher price for customer (/- 1€ per 5 minutes)

What aspects you need to consider when planning the power of the e-car charging station?

  • Rising range of vehicles and increasing charging power to 350kW. → further expansion of public charging infrastructure is clearly set towards high-performance CCS fast charging points
  • High-performance charging infrastructure only required at mobility nodes, as for instance highways, where people need to charge their vehicles fast – at hotels and Park Ride low-performance charging points are sufficient.
  • Generally high costs for infrastructure, as respective transformer stations have to be partially rebuilt for required power output.

Where is it better to place a charging station for electric vehicles?

There are 4 main questions to consider in the choose of the localization of an electric-car charge station:

  • Can the user find the e-car station easily? → How is it included in mapping, traffic management system
  • Is the location convenient?→ Places where the user would park the car anyway, necessary detours
  • How is the “micro”- environment?→Easily accessible from the street, enough space to park
  • Does the user feel safe? → No dark and/or dangerous places

What questions to consider when you are planning an ev charging station?

The main factors to consider when planning localisation in tourist hot-spots (and many other places):

  • type of electric car charging station typology (fast vs. slow)
  • electric vehicles traffic
  • frequency/needs for charging on micro location
  • intentions for stopping on a certain micro location
  • whether it is a quick stop: highway, diners, bars
  • long stop: big shopping malls, tourism attractions, lodging, restaurants
  • Facilitate ease of use
  • Ensure cost-effective installation for destination operator

At this link you can download an interesting pdf presentation focused on the Localization of electric car stations.

How electric vehicles benefit on tourism sector?

The main benefits of electric vehicles for tourist sector are:

  • Gaining customers
  • Increased traffic
  • Green image
  • Brand awareness
  • Competitive advantage of the destination / lodging
  • Extra credits (e.g. Ecobnb or the Trip Advisor‘s Green Leaders Programm)
  • Reduction of Gasoline use within / on site or attraction
  • Improving public image of the destination.

What are the benefits of electric vehicles?

Benefits of EV Tourism are:

  • Economic: increased tourism spending due to lower fuel costs
  • Social: Connecting communities Learning about new technology and decreased dependency on fossil fuel
  • Environmental Zero tailpipe emissions Opportunity to use renewable energy sources like solar power Decreased noise pollution Developing electric mobility locally can involve development of innovative mobility concepts (e.g. EV and electric bicycle sharing systems intermodal travel schemes)
  • Generally Contribute to overall awareness rising by influencing and educating the citizenry Raise awareness of locals and positive image gain for city due to charging infrastructure and large-scale use of EVs

What do you mean by interoperability?

Interoperability can be defined as “the ability to access to all the charging points without restrictions, or discrimination”

In the last years, the choice of the technical mean to access the charging station and of the payment method and related business model was completely in the hands of the charging point operators (or e-mobility service providers). Considering that hundreds of providers exist is easy to understand how variable and multifaceted the situation can be with regards to access and payment systems.

Despite the current effort in “connecting” the different networks, looking for “interoperability” and “roaming”, it is still extremely common to have many networks in the same area, each based on different access methods and on the need to enter into contracts with the providers.

This can create significant hurdles to EV drivers, which would be forced to sign many contracts or, on the other hand, to choose only one provider and to use only a small part of the overall number of charging stations. This situation, already critic in a small area, can become a real barrier when crossing borders and moving to other countries…

Despite the good number of installed e-Charging Stations, EV drivers still have to carefully plan their travels, gathering information both on the localization and the access and payment method of the needed charging station. These difficulties undoubtedly slow down e-mobility diffusion.

The possibility for the customers to access the EV charging infrastructure in a seamless and valuable way and receive transparent information for service payments is often referred to as Interoperability, although the word itself can include different meanings and several aspects…

What are the Interoperability Challenges for electro mobility?

The EV drivers needs 5 functions:

The issue of access, identification and payment is today one of the biggest open points with regards to EV charging infrastructure.

Even if most of the charging processes will probably happen at home through domestic apparel, the possibility to charge on public stations while traveling long distances is indeed a key enabler for e-mobility diffusion. And to perform a charging process, a procedure of access, (identification) and payment needs to be executed.

Due to this, it is still extremely common to have many networks in the same area, each based on different access methods and very often on the need to enter into contracts with the providers.

EV drivers would so need to plan very carefully their trips, actually studying their possibilities to access to one or another part of the infrastructure and considering the time and effort to sign up to different schemes and services. The difficulties increase when crossing borders and moving to other countries.

In this interesting document you can find out possible solutions for the interopeability issue e and 7 tips to better the interoperable e-car stations.

How to involve your community in the implementation of ev charging stations?

There are several good practices to involve citizens in electric car charging stations planning and implementation. E-HUB is a model of help-desk for Public Administrations and stakeholders in the field of e-mobility and charging infrastructure. In this document you cand find the Best practices from seven partners of Italy, Slovenia, Austria and Germany. The document aims to show successful experiences and results about the partcipatory apporach in planning e-mobility infrastructure and services and example of e-mobility help desk in the Alpine Space area.

Have you find this manual useful? We hope so! Have you decided to implement a charging infrastructure in your eco-hotel? If you are still not convinced, read this article!

Do you want to implement an electric bicycle charging service in your hotel? At this link you will find the complete guide to propose charging services for e-bikes.

If you want to further investigate the theme of charging stations for electric vehicles, below you will find several useful documents in English and German made available by eMoticon. Enjoy the reading!

Insights and online resources

  • Check-list for the implementation of charging infrastructure for electric vehicles at touristic sites within the Alpine region, by im-plan-tat, 2019: you can download the pdf clicking here
  • The role of public authorities in charging infrastructure development
  • Tips for the Installation of E-Charging Stations, March 2018. Available at: https://www.energieloesung.de/installstipps-e-ladestation
  • Hotel Association Germany (IHA) e.V. (ed.), 2018: MERKBLATT Electromobility – Information and Practical Tips, April 2018, available at: https://media.hotellerie.de/media/docs/iha-merkblatt_elektromobilitaet_april_2018.pdf
  • For hotels and restaurants, the subject of charging is becoming increasingly interesting: elektromobilitaet.nrw
  • Stöckl, Richard (Innovation and Technology Service Chamber of Commerce Tyrol), n.y.: Legal regime for the construction and operation of electric charging station, available at: http://www.ecotirol.at/images/doku/elektrofahrzeuge-betriebe-rechtliches.pdf
  • An All-in-One Guide to implement e-bike charging stations in your hotel
  • Reis, Martin (Energieinstitut Vorarlberg), n.y.: e-bike charging stations, available at: https://www.energieinstitut.at/gemeinden/mobilitaet/radverkehrsfoerderung/e-bike-ladestationen/
  • information for e-bike charging stations: https://www.energieinstitut.at/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/2016-06-07-Infos-E-Bike-Ladestationen.pdf
  • Stöckl, Richard (Innovation and Technology Service Chamber of Commerce Tyrol), n.y.: Legal regime for the construction and operation of electric charging station, available at: http://www.ecotirol.at/images/doku/elektrofahrzeuge-betriebe-rechtliches.pdf
  • EU Science Hub, Interoperability and e-mobility

This manual has been created in the context of E-MOTICON, a European project that promotes the spread of sustainable mobility and charging systems for electric vehicles in the Alps. The manual has been realized by Ecobnb following the Bolzano and Tolmezzo workshops, with the contribution of:

Transportation

Parking is available at the Los Angeles Convention Center, LA LIVE, and at nearby privately operated lots. Parking at private lots will cost an estimated 10-30 per day, depending on how close the lot is located to the convention center. To help you plan your trip to Anime Expo, here is a parking availability tool.

Please be aware that parking rates vary and are subject to change. Anime Expo does not endorse or control rates or policies at any of these parking locations.

Los Angeles Convention Center Public Garage Rates

The following rates and hours apply to parking garages associated with the Los Angeles Convention Center. Handicapped parking and motorcycle parking are also subject to the same fees.

All LACC parking garages open at 4:30 AM. There is no overnight parking available.

LA Live

All information below is from the LA Live website.

West Garage (Lot W, Gate B – Enter on Chick Hearn Ct.)

  • Recommended by LA LIVE for events lasting 3½ hours or more.
  • Flat rate:35 (depending on the event) payable upon entrance. Valet service is available for an additional fee

West Garage (Lot W, Gates E F- Enter on Georgia St. and turn on West Road)

charging, station
  • Timed parking rates:5= First 2 hours 5= Each additional ½ hour (or fraction thereof, 25 maximum)
  • Flat rate:15= Cars entering after 9:00 p.m.
  • Validation:One validation per vehicle allowed. Validation is provided by some establishments/restaurants in LA LIVE, please confirm prior to arrival.

EAST GARAGE (Lot E – Enter on Olympic Blvd)

charging, station
  • Timed parking rates:5= First 2 hours 10= Each additional ½ hour (or fraction thereof, 30 maximum)
  • Flat rate:15= Cars entering after 9:00 p.m., except Valet Level P2
  • Valet Service:Valet service is available on Level P2 from 4 p.m. – 2 a.m. daily. There is a 5 service charge, in addition to regular timed rates.
  • Validation:One validation per vehicle allowed. Validation is provided by some establishments/restaurants in LA LIVE, please confirm prior to arrival.

Bicycle Parking

Bicycle Parking is available at the following locations:

  • In the P1 level of the East Garage located at Olympic Blvd. and Francisco St. Ride down the ramp, racks are located to the left.
  • On the Southside of STAPLES Center near the Los Angeles Convention Center at Gilbert Lindsey Plaza.

Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

There are a total of sixteen (16) Level 2 electric vehicle charging stations in the two parking facilities on the L.A. LIVE campus. The West Garage has 8 charging stations and is located at 1005 W. Chick Hearn Ct., Los Angeles, CA 90015. The East Garage has 8 charging stations and is located at 800 W. Olympic Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90015.

EV charging spaces are conveniently located near the pedestrian access points of the garages. Please note that there is a fee for charging; the charging rate is 1 per hour for the 1st 4 hours, 3 per hour thereafter. Please see the kiosk prior to use.

Public Transportation

There are many alternative forms of transportation with frequent stops near the Los Angeles Convention Center. The information below is provided as a resource for attendees who are planning their trips to Anime Expo.

Another option is to ride your bike! Bike racks are available in the East Garage of LA LIVE, located at Olympic Blvd and Francisco Street. If you ride down the ramp, racks can be found on the left.

LADOT DASH

DASH, or Downtown Area Short Hop, is a service created by the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT) whose primary function is to provide a localized transportation service. This means if your bank is down a couple of blocks, you would just hop onto your local DASH bus and it will take you there. DASH currently operates over 30 routes covering Downtown Los Angeles and many outlying communities within the city.

If you would like to experience more of Los Angeles than just the Convention Center but you don’t have access to a car then DASH is for you. You can just hop on and it can take you to food, fun, and experiences and it’s only 50¢!

LA Metro

Go Metro to the LA Convention Center by connecting to the A, E, or J Line and exiting at Pico Station. The Convention Center is just one block west from this station. Numerous Metro bus lines across LA County also service the Convention Center. To plan a trip on your phone or computer, popular and easy tools include Google Maps, Apple Maps, the Transit app, the Moovit app and metro.net.

Metro Bike Share stations are also available at the following locations:

1-Ride Metro Bike Passes are just 1.75 for each 30 minutes and can be purchased online, through the Metro Bike Share app or at any Metro Bike Share kiosk.

Amtrak

AMTRAK offers train service from beyond the Los Angeles area to Union Station, just minutes from the Los Angeles Convention Center. For service routes and schedules, visit amtrak.com or call (800) USA-RAIL. Taxi service is available from Union Station to the L.A. LIVE campus.

Note: Amtrak passengers must purchase a separate ticket to ride the Metro Rail.

Metrolink

Metrolink operates train service within Southern California from Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Ventura, Orange, and North San Diego Counties. They now have special weekend passes for only 10 which includes free connections to Metro bus and rail lines that stop nearby. For train schedules and more information, please call (800) 371-5465 or visit metrolinktrains.com.

Taxis Car Services

The following information is provided as a resource for Anime Expo attendees and was pulled directly from the respective websites. Anime Expo does not endorse or control rates or policies of any of the services listed below.

Taxi

There are nine franchise taxi operators in the City of Los Angeles who operate more than 2300 taxis. Be sure before boarding any taxi in the city of Los Angeles that you look for the official City of Los Angeles Taxicab Seal. Taxicabs bearing this seal are insured, have trained drivers and are regularly inspected by the City of Los Angeles. Any cab without the seal is a bandit cab with no legal authorization to operate in the City. Read below or visit TaxiCabsLA.org more information about the City of Los Angeles authorized taxi companies, their telephone numbers, and service areas.

To estimate your fare, feel free to use Taxi Fare Finder. Taxis can be hailed using the RideYellow app, with the help of hotel staff, at the convention center, or by calling them at any of the numbers below.

To reach LADOT customer service regarding complaints or commendations, please call 1-800-501-0999.Metered Rates (as of 7/16/11 from TaxiCabsLA.org)

All Passengers Ride for Price of One:

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  • 2.85 Flag drop (First 1/9th mile).
  • 0.30 For each additional 1/9th mile (2.70 per mile).
  • 0.30 For each 37.0 seconds waiting time and/or traffic delay (29.19 per hour).
  • 46.50 Flat fare for trips between LAX and downtown.
  • 4.00 Surcharge for all trips originating at LAX.
  • 15.00 Minimum fare for trips originating at LAX (In addition to the 4.00 surcharge)

Taxi Companies Phone Numbers

Bell Cab (888) 235-5222 or (800) 666-6664 Комментарии и мнения владельцев/Complaints: (800) 830-0551

Beverly Hills Cab Company (310 or 800) 273-6611 or (800) 398-5221 Комментарии и мнения владельцев/Complaints: (310) 837-0260, Ext. 225

L.A. Checker Cab (800 or 888) 300-5007 or (323) 654-8400 Комментарии и мнения владельцев/Complaints: (310) 330-3720

City Cab (818) 252-1600 or (888) 248-9222 or (800) 750-4400 Комментарии и мнения владельцев/Complaints: (818) 252-1670

Independent Taxi (323) 666-0050 or (800) 521-8294 Комментарии и мнения владельцев/Complaints: (323) 666-0050

United Independent Tax i 10 Minimum Card Charge (323) 653-5050 or (310) 821-1000 or (800) 822-8294 Комментарии и мнения владельцев/Complaints: (213) 483-7669, Ext. 3068

Yellow Cab (310 or 213) 808-1000 or (800) 200-1085 or (877) 733-3305 Комментарии и мнения владельцев/Complaints: (310) 715-1968

Uber

About: “Get a taxi, private car or rideshare from your mobile phone. Uber connects you with a driver in minutes.” For more information, rates, fare estimation, please visit Uber’s website.

  • UberX: The least expensive Uber service. Drivers use their own everyday cars to give you a ride. Seats 4 riders.
  • UberXL:Seats at least 6 passengers. An UberXL car will be an SUV or a MiniVan. Higher fare price than UberX.
  • UberPlus: A luxury sedan that seats up to 4 riders. Expect a BMW, Mercedes, Audi, etc with a leather interior, allows you to split the fare within the app.
  • UberPOOL: Share your ride with another person and split the cost. Only available in LA, SF, NYC, and Paris. Read more.
  • Black Car: Uber’s ‘executive’ luxury service. Your driver will be a licensed livery driver and pick you up in a luxury sedan or SUV. Higher fare price than UberPlus.

Lyft

About: “Download the Lyft app for iPhone or Android, and get a friendly, affordable ride within minutes. Just tap a button, and you’ll get picked up by a Lyft driver. When the ride ends, the app automatically charges your saved credit card. No need to carry cash! ”

For more information and fare estimation, please visit the Lyft website.

At times of high demand your fare may be subject to a ‘Prime Time’ multiplier to keep vehicles available. The multiplier, if any, will be communicated to you at the time of your ride request. Applicable tolls and surcharges may also be added to your fare.

Can Electric Car Charging Be A Business?

Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.

This article is more than 2 years old.

Gas stations are a business. They sell gasoline to drivers and make a profit, just like any commodity vendor. But charging for electric cars is very different. Even though it was estimated in 2020 that there are 26,000 EV charging stations with over 86,000 plugs, and a much larger number of home charging points, they are generally not a business with a few exceptions.

EV buyers tend to be homeowners. That means they install some sort of charging at home. There they buy electricity at the consumer price, but usually arrange for “time of day” pricing where the electricity is cheap at night, and that’s when they charge. That costs from 8 to 16 cents/kwh, or roughly 2 to 4 cents per mile of driving. The power company sells electricity but is not even aware they are in the EV charging business.

Many others charge at work. Even homeowners do this because many employers offer the charging free to employees as a perk and to encourage green driving. If they do charge a fee, they’re not in it as a business like a gas station.

For the modern generation of EVs with 200 miles of range, their owners can charge at home or work and never need to do any more for all their driving around their town. They may see EV charging stations at stores and parking lots but have no great motive to use them, though they will use them if they are free. A lot of them are free, put there as a perk for customers or again to just promote green driving. But many drivers don’t even bother plugging into the free ones. It’s a hassle, and a typical parking stop for shopping or dining would be unlikely to get even 1 worth of electricity.

There are charging stations that cost money and try to be a business. But they usually cost a bunch of money — 25 to 55 cents/kwh. That’s 2 to 5 times the cost at home, and nobody’s going to plug in unless desperate.

Imagine what gasoline would be like if everybody had a gas station at home where they filled up slowly every night for 1.00/gallon. How often would they stop at an ordinary station charging 3.00/gallon? Only in a desperate situation, or when far from home. Running a gas station would not be much of a business!

As noted, this changes when far from home, on inter-city trips. There, one must charge at public charging stations, ideally fast ones. (Not always, as many hotels offer free charging for guests, reducing some of that need, and more will in the future.)

The fast charging world began with TeslaTSLA. When Tesla first built their supercharging network, they made it free for all customers. It wasn’t there to sell electricity, it was there to sell cars. Later, Tesla stopped giving free lifetime supercharging, and charges a rate around 25 to 30 cents/kwh. That’s quite a bit more than charging at home, but Tesla says it is their break-even price. Again, they are not running the charging network to profit off selling electricity, they want to sell cars.

The largest non-Tesla network is being built by Electrify America/Electrify Canada. This project has been funded by Volkswagen, as a penance for the “Dieselgate” scandal. While it operates a bit more like a business, that’s not why it’s being built. A typical price there is 43 cents/kwh (31 cents for users who pay a 4/month membership fee.) This price could make a profit, but it’s not as easy as it seems. Fast charging stations are expensive to build, and electricity vary during the day, and can exceed that 43 cents during the peak hours of summer. Fast charging stations are rarely used at night when the power is cheap. Tesla’s claim that they break even around 28 cents suggests EA doesn’t make a lot of profit and is there to be something other than a business.

Truth is, at 43 cents/kwh, interest also wanes. That’s 11 cents/mile. With today’s 2/gallon cheap gas, a hybrid car like a Prius can be a fair bit cheaper than that, and while EVs have many other advantages than fuel price, people don’t like paying more than the price of gasoline.

If you’ve charged an EV, you’ve probably come upon a station with the Chargepoint brand. They’re the largest brand in making and managing charging stations. The key is that they only manage them. Chargepoint don’t generally sell you electricity — Chargepoint just sells the station to somebody else who wants to sell or give you electricity, and most of them are not trying to run a business. Chargepoint figured out early that selling electricity wasn’t the business it wanted to be in.

Not all agree. EVgo is a charging station operator who sells electricity with both slow and fast-charge stations. Even they admit there may not be much business from the ordinary consumer. In the city, they face the issue of most people having that 1/gallon station at home every night. Instead, their plan is for a business charging EV fleets. While many fleets can charge at a base, running and installing a charging array there may not be that much cheaper than making a fleet contract with a provider like EVgo — particularly if they want to charge mid-day or away from base.

Problems of not being a business

Because charging is not a business, it has had negative consequences on charging stations. Many stations were installed thanks to government subsidies. They were often put in odd places nobody would want to charge and sit vacant a great deal of the time. Worse, because the money to build them came from sources other than the money (or lack of money) to operate them, they are often in bad repair. One of the best directories of charging stations, plugshare.com, has many stations reported as broken or offline. This even extends to the fast-charging networks, where reports of outages are common and repairs can come slowly. This is a problem for people attempting to do road trips with CCS or Chademo fast charging, since you are absolutely dependent on there being a working charger in many of the locations.

Tesla’s network is not run for profit but because Tesla owners are very vocal and buy their cars in part for the ability to do these road trips, Tesla maintains the network which is exclusive to their cars and does it well. Other networks get frequent complaints of outages, with occasionally stranded drivers, though Smart drivers check reports and plan for potential outages. While Tesla tends to build large charging stations placed further apart, where the outage of one sub-unit is not a problem, other networks tend to make stations with just 2-4 chargers, but spaced more closely so that with planning, drivers can get to a different one if equipment has failed.

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According to reports, many networks have problems, but apparently the stations operated by Plugshare have a higher reliability result. Problems are more common in networks run for other reasons, such as state-funded EV-kickstart networks and power company networks or other networks put in for political reasons rather than business ones.

The real problem is that customer service is only given to customers. And if the driver wanting to charge isn’t the real customer, the service will not be great.

Non-homeowners

There are many drivers who can’t charge at home or at work. They buy fewer EVs today but want them. They are forced to charge at public charging stations. This is not nearly as attractive a proposition — the price at those stations is more than gasoline in a hybrid, and and stopping and charging can be very time consuming. People with such cars hear the regular promises of fast charging that takes 10 or even 5 minutes and salivate, but charging at that speed is going to be expensive because of the immense power flow required. There might be a business selling these drivers power at the higher price, but those drivers will always want to find another way to get their power at a better, more convenient price.

That demand will lead more apartment blocks to install charging in portions of their parking lots. They will either do it because it becomes a necessary amenity to get such tenants, or in rent-controlled units and other situations, they may install it to sell electricity. Charge-where-you-park does not need to be fast charging, and as such the installed cost is lower, and charging while you sleep requires no travel or time compared to fast charging, so this will be more profitable than selling fast-charging to these customers. To top it of, night power can be 1/3rd the price of the daytime power needed at fast-charging stations, another big advantage for installing charging in these lots.

Fuel at a profit?

It should be noted that while gas stations do sell fuel at a profit, many try to get more of their profit from convenience stores, car washes and other services. In effect, EV charging stations located with shopping may also use this approach. Today, though, it’s not that productive to charge at level 2 during a 30 minute shopping stop.

On the other hand, fast charging on intercity road trips is often paired with a meal. Because charging today takes 30-60 minutes, it is the common practice to eat while doing it — making it take effectively zero time rather than an unacceptable wait. Everybody on a long road trip has to eat, it’s just a question of where and when. It is obviously not an ideal choice to eat only in limited locations, but in time this will improve. Today, the restaurants next to fast chargers don’t do any “combination” deals but this could change, with food and charging bundled together in some fashion, or even things like pre-ordering food delivered to your car or ready when you arrive to speed up the process. A fast-charge of 50kwh is about 15 at Tesla’s break even price, so it would have to be a fancy restaurant that bundled it in for free, but this is an area for entrepreneurs to explore. People stopping for charging definitely want to make productive use of their time. That will be true until the mythical 5 minute charge is developed, and even so, the 5 minute charge is likely to be more expensive than slower charges because of the cost of megawatt-capable charging gear.

The great solar flip

Today, the cheapest power is at night. The most expensive power is from 3pm to 9pm. As more and more solar power is put on the grid, however, this will change. 3pm to 9pm will continue to be expensive, but there will eventually be a surplus of solar power from 8am to 3pm. Indeed, those imagining future grids wonder what to do with all that extra solar power, since it has to be stored to be useful, since the demand to use it is not present.

When this happens, the power will flip, and the 8am-3pm period may become the cheap power while night becomes more expensive, since it can’t come from solar and must come from storage, nuclear, hydro, wind or fossil.

The best place to put that extra power is into cars. Unlike almost all other loads on the power grid, cars can be very flexible about when they take the power. 95% of the time, they just need to add their average demand every few days. On special days with long trips they are more demanding. As such, they would be very happy to get low on power by being flexible about when they take it. That means, once plugged in, they will charge opportunistically when there is a surplus, including from solar and from wind. (Wind turbines are even more eager to be sure somebody will take any unplanned power they have. There are times when the price on the grid goes negative because nobody nearby wants it.)

To make this work, cars need to be plugged in during those hours. Cars that don’t commute and are still at home can do that, but otherwise it means putting in charging connections where commuters park. That includes parking lots and even along the streets.

The need of those with surplus power to sell it is so great in the world of renewable power that providers expect power companies might well pay to install charging in these commuter spaces just so that they can be sure to sell their extra power. These stations will still work at night for people who need to park on the street and want to have electric cars.

Of course, before too long, it will be very common for cars to be able to move on their own to charging stations and even plug in without human help. This actually reduces the need for building too much of the infrastructure described above. Cars will get a notice, “there’s surplus solar right now. If you’re free and need power, get yourself to a charging station now to get a great price.” And so they will. (With good forecasting, surplus power is often predictable well in advance, too.)

Many imagine that these cars will also feed the power they picked up during this surplus period back into the grid during the peak demand times and even the night. This idea is called “vehicle to grid” and requires special inverters and other tools to let the car’s battery feed the power back, ideally with custom waveforms to also offset unusual power factors in grid demand. While this is expensive, it is possible, but the reality is that just having the cars pick their charging time based on messages from the grid about price breaks (or to meet contractual agreements) provides a great deal of the value without needing any special equipment at all.

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