volt: what it is and why it’s important
Electric vehicle manufacturers are starting to adopt 48-volt electrical systems. The latest specialist EVs will be using components that more power, additional torque, and – with automation and Smart engineering – greater intelligence. The potential applications of 48V are exciting, representing a huge innovation in automotive design.
With more technical capability, comes a greater need for power. For specialist vehicles, this need for power only grows. Like passenger vehicles, specialist EVs can reap the benefits of this higher voltage system without the size and/or weight trade-offs. The solution for many is adopting higher-voltage 48V from typical 12V systems. Thanks to advancements in engineering: it has no lighting or surge-requirements and the range is more limited to 30 – 60V.
What is 48 volt and how does it benefit specialist vehicles?
Typical 24 volt systems have been popular in Europe for some time. In the early 2000s, proposals for 42-volt systems fizzled out because of cost concerns and practicality. Compared with 24V, only half as much current is required to get the same power. Today, the industry seems better prepared, thanks to a better understanding of their capabilities.
48V’s limited range of 30-60V has led to its re-emergence. The reason this range is effective, regardless of capping voltages below a 60V cut-off, is because they meet Safety-Extra Low-Voltage (SELV) requirements. 48V can distribute power to your commercial EV components, minimising copper losses without causing unsafe SELV issues. The output can reach 57.6V before the power supply shuts down, and protects your downstream circuitry from damage.
Increase of Cost-Effective Power
In cost-terms, anything higher than 60-volts not only breaches SELV, but becomes more expensive to implement. Designers would need special cabling and wiring – not to mention tighter regulation (you can read about regulations here). 48V systems hit the sweet-spot – providing more efficient power distribution throughout, optimising engine accessories and other electronics on the vehicle. Higher-voltage designs also allow for improved power generation.
The system’s battery is also more efficient. With an integer multiple of the current 12V systems (seen in the commercial vehicle industry) 48V allows for four dependable lead-acid batteries placed in series. Thus eliminating the need for expensive batteries. 48V systems have the benefit of increasing power to components without raising the current – minimising copper, which requires expensive cabling and a loss in transmission.
48V is competent enough in handling EV components without compromising fuel-economising strategies.
Packaging made Easy
Applying 48V in your designs could give you more flexibility in packaging, too. When compared to belt-driven alternatives like the front-end accessory drive (FEAD), components can be packaged at the front of a truck’s engine.
Carl R. Smith, Commercial Manager, Engineering and Customer Support, for Eaton eMobility believes, ‘48V will begin an initial adoption in the commercial truck and agricultural equipment markets within less than five years’. John Deere, for example, already has adopted 48V – introducing it in one of their row-crop planters. This increases speed and eliminates hydraulic lines – another triumph of packaging potential for specialist designers.
How 48V can Enhance Hybrids
For mild hybrids, 48V is being used for energy recuperation. Companies are designing boost recuperation machines (BRM) to work with additional electric compressors – minimising the choice between driving dynamically and efficiently. Features include brake energy recovery, electrical torque support, load point optimization and smoother start/stop engine starts. With braking, for example, part of the kinetic energy is recovered and stored in the 48V battery – recharging battery cells.
48V also contributes to electrical torque support – to a downsized combustion engine – during boosting operations. Specialist vehicles (particularly trucks) rely on higher torque with less energy wastage. Along with an optimised start/stop system, this is achievable thanks to 48V’s smaller voltage, delivering four times more power than traditional hybrid systems.
Intelligent technology within BRM is being used to regulate tailgating by predictive coasting systems. This makes driving a commercial vehicle much safer. It is expected that as of 2020, four million vehicles will be adopting BRM technology.
MHEVs (mild hybrids work by only using 48V-driven components like electric fans, electric water pump, a vein-type air compressor, electric power steering and a 15-kW crank assist generator. When tried on trucks as part of a typical drive cycle, the system demonstrated 28% fuel savings, a NOx reduction of 46%, and a particulate reduction of 93%.
Half the benefit comes from auxiliary systems, improving the thermal performance of the engine – along with more precise control. This is enhanced by a boost in the back of the engine (in crank assist mode) – particularly useful when the engine needs some extra acceleration.
MHEV is one way 48V can be applied to your hybrid design, with a number of supporting components available from Dalroad.
Proving a Point with TCO
If there is no total-cost-of-ownership benefit, fleet owners are less likely to electrify their vehicles. With impending regulation on fossil fuels, MHEV is one such way that manufacturers are proving the success of 48V for fleets; as a system capable of running EV components, without higher costs (thanks to aforementioned control in currents).
Keep in mind the benefits are different depending on the duty-cycle. For on-the-road Class 8 trucks, benefits are primarily in controlling the air compressor, steering pump, and other auxiliaries, turning them off when not in use.
Alternatively, if you are designing for a Class 6 delivery truck, with many transients, and starts and stops, the 48V system would be used for cooling systems, keeping engine temperatures low.
V Hybridization as Innovation
Because of this variety of duty cycles, 48V mild hybrids can spark innovative applications to a specialist vehicle design.
The market will electrify. In some applications, 48V mild hybrids will become standard where there are problems justifying a fully battery-electric vehicle solution.
This could also work for the intermediary freight market, delivering goods on the fringes of cities. While many cities are banning ICEs (internal combustion engines) altogether, ICE-powered trucks will still supply the fringes, and mild, 48V hybridization could be a solution. Fleets without the means to fully-electrify could find this a satisfying alternative for now.
Time to go 48V?
Battery costs are rapidly reducing – signalling wider EV adoption. 48V uses smaller batteries, yet competently caters to increased e-power requirements for connectivity and autonomy. The good part: they cost less than high voltage systems. This is once again, the 48V sweet spot.
If battery drop low enough, however, designers might opt for fully electrifying.
For now, the 48V architectures provide the optimal trade-off of meeting regulations, performance, weight and cost.
The team at Dalroad is on-hand to assist you with designing your commercial vehicle. If you are working with 12V architecture, we can help reveal how you can overhaul the design to work with an upgraded 48V system.
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Automotive 48V System Market Statistics. 2027
The global automotive 48V system market was valued at 2,227.70 million in 2019, and is projected to reach 21,002.99 million by 2027, registering a CAGR of 26.5% from 2020 to 2027. By vehicle class, the mid vehicle class segment was the highest revenue contributor in 2019, accounting for 874.92 million, and is estimated to reach 7,731.48 million by 2027, registering a CAGR of 25.7% during the forecast period. In 2019, Asia-Pacific was anticipated to account for major market share.
The 48V system market opens up more cost-effective opportunities for hybridization by enabling a wide variety of different vehicle functions, from boosting engine performance to supplying the growing number of electrical consumers to powering functions. The primary purpose of this new voltage level is to reduce CO2 emissions by means of recuperation and start-stop features and to power electrical components classed as high-power loads (such as air-conditioning compressors, electrical heaters, pumps, and steering drives). over, the deployment of 48-Volt technology, providing additional torque enables more dynamic handling and performance.
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The 48V system architecture is designed with a structure that adds a new electric motor and 48V battery onto the combustion engine and normal 12V battery. The automotive 48V system consists of the primary component unit that includes three main components such as a Belt Alternator Starter (also called a Belt-driven Starter Generator or Motor Generator Unit, MGU), a DC-to-DC converter, and a higher voltage battery, and also other components such as 48v inverter, power distribution boxes, electric motor/generator, and E-charger. The automotive 48V system market trends are decided on the basis of forecast from 2020 to 2027.
The global automotive 48V system market is driven by increase in demand for hybrid and electric vehicle and rise in demand for 48V battery system. However, high cost of system in vehicles and rise in sale of battery electric vehicles restrain the growth of the market. Furthermore, increased safety comfort features in vehicles and reduction of CO2 emission to meet future emission legislations are anticipated to provide lucrative growth opportunities for the players operating in the automotive 48v system market.
COVID Impact Analysis: With the advent in COVID-19 pandemic across the globe, the global automotive 48v system market has been affected as the manufacturing units have been shut down due to the imposed lockdown in major countries across the globe. Also, the unavailability of skilled labor has affected the market but the global automotive 48v system market is expected to register a significant growth in the near future owing to its rising technology adoptions in many vehicles of the developed countries.
The global automotive 48V system market is segmented on the basis of architecture, vehicle class, and region. Belt Driven (P0), Crankshaft Mounted (P1), Dual-clutch transmission-mounted /input shaft of transmission (P2/P3), and transmission output shaft/ rear axle (P4) are studied under the architecture segment. Entry, mid, premium, and luxury are categorized under the vehicle class. By region, the market is analyzed across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA.
The key players operating in the global automotive 48V system market are BorgWarner Inc., Robert Bosch GmbH, CONTINENTAL AG, Dana Limited, Delphi Technologies, GKN (Melrose Industries PLC), Lear Corporation, Magna International Inc., MAHLE Powertrain Ltd, and Valeo SA.
Rise in demand for hybrid electric vehicles
The lower emission standards set by the governments led to the adoption of hybrid cars and electric vehicles. The 48V systems are widely used in hybrid cars and electric vehicles for driving the vehicle as well as for lighting systems, pumps, and other applications. These systems are popular among hybrid vehicles as they benefit from the use of these systems to create extra power during acceleration and increase fuel efficiency. The 48V systems have led to the development of low-cost mild hybrids that are becoming widely popular across the globe. Major suppliers such as Bosch, Delphi Automotive, Continental, Valeo, and Gustanski are focusing on the development of 48V systems for mild hybrid vehicles. For instance, Mercedes-Benz has announced a new hybrid SUV GLE580, while its rival Audi has already launched hybrid SUV Q8, in the same segment. Both of the vehicles come packed with hybrid engines along with 48-Volt battery systems. Thus, the hybridization of the vehicles with 48V system and increase in the demand for the same is fueling the growth of the automotive 48V system market in near future.
Increase in demand 48V battery system
The 48V batteries are widely used in hybrid cars and electric vehicles for driving the vehicle as well as for lighting system, pumps, and other applications. Furthermore, the 48V battery system hybrid solution is more cost-effective than the conventional battery-powered electric vehicle to reduce the emission. In addition, the 48V battery systems get charged quickly and batteries lasts for a longer period compared to conventional batteries. As the 48V battery comprises a crucial component of the automotive 48V system, most battery manufacturers have begun developing 48V batteries. For instance, Johnson Controls offers 48V battery systems for mild HEVs for use with 48V motors and electronics to deliver 15% more fuel economy over conventional vehicles. Therefore, the development of 48V battery system is expected to drive the growth of the automotive 48v system market in the near future.
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Anticipated rise in sale of fully powered battery electric vehicle in coming years
The battery electric vehicles offer several advantages over hybrid vehicles. The main advantage is that battery electric vehicles benefit the environment more than hybrids, since they do not use any fuel at all. In addition, battery electric vehicles help save more money than hybrids do, since they do not use any fuel. They also offer a longer electric-only range than hybrids. Currently sales of hybrid electric vehicles is more as compared to battery electric vehicles. Anticipated to zero emission production and fuel cost-effectiveness of BEV over HEV, if sales of BEV rise then it will create hurdle for sales of 48V system-based vehicle in future and thus, will hinder the growth of the automotive 48V system market.
Increases the overall cost of the vehicle
12V system is being used in the vehicles since a very long time; therefore, manufactures need to redesign the components and electrical system which will run over the 48V electrical system. The key components of the 48V electrical system are inverter, battery – currently based on lithium ion technology, battery controller, and power distribution boxes. This requires a new design for all corresponding control units to ensure that they meet the changed requirements that apply at higher voltages. The average cost for the 48V inverter, 48V lithium ion battery, and battery controller for power distribution boxes ranges from 80 to 750, respectively, which increases the overall cost of the vehicle. Furthermore, the 48V system will need space in the vehicle to be installed and that means redesigning of the car for that additional system, electrical circuit, and required space. In addition, additional safety precautions are needed while designing the 48V electrical system. Thus, while almost all the manufacturers are working on decreasing the cost of the vehicle, the 48V system increases the cost of a vehicle, which is expected to hinder the growth of the automotive 48v system market.
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Increase in demand for advanced safety and comfort features in vehicles
The OEMs are implementing more electronic units, lightweight designs, and electrification of powertrains in their vehicle models. Speakers at the ICE Powertrain Electrification Energy Recovery conference in May 2013 estimated that 70% of new cars in Europe in 2020 will need electrification to meet the European Union’s goal of 95 g/km of carbon-dioxide emissions. For instance, the five premier German car manufacturers, Audi, BMW, Daimler, Porsche, and Volkswagen announced their agreement to jointly incorporate a variety of architectural components for on-board power networks into their vehicles. The five OEM’s are implementing a 48V power supply, and appealed to suppliers to actively engage in RD of components for vehicles with a 48V electric system. The demand for increased safety and comforts such as heated seats, power steering, and advanced driver assistance systems among consumers have propelled the adoption of electronic units, which will subsequently, put a high load on the vehicle’s battery system. In addition, vehicle safety gears such as reverse cameras, adaptive speed control, blind-spot monitoring, road condition sensors, and motion detectors for automatic emergency braking are becoming commonplace in upcoming vehicles. Such requirements have prompted the OEMS to develop a dual voltage architecture, which includes 48V supply and can be used to satisfy the power demand for components in the vehicle. Since the safety voltage level for vehicles is 60V, it has further contributed to the growing preference for the 48V system so that the system does not exceed the safety voltage level. Thus, advanced comfort and safety features in upcoming vehicle provides opportunity to the automotive 48v system market.
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Key Benefits For Stakeholders
- This study presents analytical depiction of the automotive 48v system market analysis along with the current trends and future estimations to depict the imminent investment s.
- The overall market potential is determined to understand the profitable trends to gain a stronger foothold.
- The report presents information related to key drivers, restraints, and opportunities of the market with a detailed impact analysis.
- The current automotive 48V system market size is quantitatively analyzed from 2019 to 2027 to benchmark the financial competency.
- Porter’s five forces analysis illustrates the potency of the buyers and suppliers in the hybrid vehicle industry.
Key Market Segments
- By ARCHITECTURE
- Belt Driven (P0)
- Crankshaft Mounted (P1)
- Dual-clutch transmission-mounted / input shaft of transmission(P2 / P3)
- Transmission output shaft/ rear axle (P4)
- NORTH AMERICA
- REST OF EUROPE
- REST OF ASIA-PACIFIC
- LATIN AMERICA
- MIDDLE EAST
Key Market Players
- Delphi Technologies
- CONTINENTAL AG
- Magna International Inc
- BorgWarner Inc
- GKN (Melrose Industries PLC)
- Lear Corporation
- Robert Bosch GmbH
- MAHLE Powertrain Ltd
- Dana Limited
1.1.Report description1.2.Key benefits for stakeholders1.3.Key market segments1.4.Research methodology
1.4.1.Primary research1.4.2.Secondary research1.4.3.Analyst tools and models
CHAPTER 2:EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
3.1.Market definition and scope3.2.Key findings
3.2.1.Top impacting factors3.2.2.Top investment s3.2.3.Top winning strategies
3.3.Porter’s five forces analysis3.4.Key Player Positioning (2019)3.5.Market dynamics
220.127.116.11.Rising demand for Hybrid electric vehicles18.104.22.168.Increase in demand 48V battery system
22.214.171.124.Anticipated rise in sale of fully powered battery electric vehicle in coming years126.96.36.199.Increases the overall cost of the vehicle
188.8.131.52.Increasing demand for advanced safety and comforts features in vehicles184.108.40.206.Reduction of CO2 emission to meet future emission legislation
CHAPTER 4:AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE
4.1.Overview4.2.Belt Driven (P0)
4.2.1.Key market trends, growth factors and opportunities4.2.2.Market size and forecast, by region4.2.3.Market analysis by country
4.3.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities4.3.2.Market size and forecast, by region4.3.3.Market analysis by country
4.4.Dual-clutch transmission-mounted / input shaft of transmission(P2 / P3)
4.4.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities4.4.2.Market size and forecast, by region4.4.3.Market analysis by country
4.5.Transmission output shaft/ rear axle (P4)
4.5.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities4.5.2.Market size and forecast, by region4.5.3.Market analysis by country
CHAPTER 5:AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS
5.2.1.Key market trends, growth factors and opportunities5.2.2.Market size and forecast, by region5.2.3.Market analysis by country
5.3.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities5.3.2.Market size and forecast, by region5.3.3.Market analysis by country
5.4.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities5.4.2.Market size and forecast, by region5.4.3.Market analysis by country
5.5.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities5.5.2.Market size and forecast, by region5.5.3.Market analysis by country
CHAPTER 6:AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY REGION
6.1.Overview 6.2.North America
6.2.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities6.2.2.Market size and forecast, by architecture6.2.3.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class6.2.4.Market analysis by country
220.127.116.11.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture18.104.22.168.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
22.214.171.124.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture126.96.36.199.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
188.8.131.52.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture184.108.40.206.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
6.3.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities6.3.2.Market size and forecast, by architecture6.3.3.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class6.3.4.Market analysis by country
220.127.116.11.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture18.104.22.168.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
22.214.171.124.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture126.96.36.199.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
188.8.131.52.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture184.108.40.206.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
220.127.116.11.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture18.104.22.168.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
22.214.171.124.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture126.96.36.199.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
6.4.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities6.4.2.Market size and forecast, by architecture6.4.3.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class6.4.4.Market analysis by country
188.8.131.52.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture184.108.40.206.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
220.127.116.11.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture18.104.22.168.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
22.214.171.124.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture126.96.36.199.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
188.8.131.52.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture184.108.40.206.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
220.127.116.11.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture18.104.22.168.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
6.5.1.Key market trends, growth factors, and opportunities6.5.2.Market size and forecast, by architecture6.5.3.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class6.5.4.Market analysis by country
22.214.171.124.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture126.96.36.199.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
188.8.131.52.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture184.108.40.206.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
220.127.116.11.1.Market size and forecast, by architecture18.104.22.168.2.Market size and forecast, by vehicle class
CHAPTER 7:COMPANY PROFILES
7.1.1.company overview7.1.2.company snapshot7.1.3.Product portfolio7.1.4.Business performance7.1.5.Key strategic moves and developments
7.2.1.company overview7.2.2.company snapshot7.2.3.Operating business segments7.2.4.Business performance7.2.5.Key strategic moves and developments
7.3.1.company overview7.3.2.company snapshot7.3.3.Operating business segments7.3.4.Business performance7.3.5.Key strategic moves and developments
7.4.1.company overview7.4.2.company snapshot7.4.3.Operating business segments7.4.4.Business performance7.4.5.Key strategic moves and developments
7.5.1.company overview7.5.2.company snapshot7.5.3.Operating business segments7.5.4.Business performance7.5.5.Key strategic moves and developments
7.6.GKN (Melrose Industries PLC)
7.6.1.company overview7.6.2.company snapshot7.6.3.Operating business segments7.6.4.Product portfolio7.6.5.Business performance
7.7.1.company overview7.7.2.company snapshot7.7.3.Operating business segments7.7.4.Product portfolio7.7.5.Business performance
7.8.Magna International Inc.
7.8.1.company overview7.8.2.company snapshot7.8.3.Operating business segments7.8.4.Product portfolio7.8.5.Business performance7.8.6.Key strategic moves and developments
7.9.1.company overview7.9.2.company snapshot7.9.3.Operating business segments7.9.4.Business performance7.9.5.Key strategic moves and developments
7.10.1.company overview7.10.2.company snapshot7.10.3.Operating business segments7.10.4.Product portfolio7.10.5.Business performance7.10.6.Key strategic moves and developments
TABLE 01.GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019-2027(MILLION)TABLE 02.AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKE TREVENUE FOR BELT DRIVEN (P0) ARCHITECTURE, BY REGION 2019-2027 (MILLION)TABLE 03.AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET REVENUE FOR CRANKSHAFT MOUNTED (P1) ARCHITECTURE, BY REGION 2019-2027 (MILLION)TABLE 04.AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET REVENUE FOR DUAL-CLUTCH TRANSMISSION-MOUNTED /ON INPUT SHAFT OF TRANSMISSION(P2 OR P3) ARCHITECTURE, BY REGION 2019-2027 (MILLION)TABLE 05.AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET REVENUE FOR TRANSMISSION OUTPUT SHAFT/ REAR AXLE (P4) ARCHITECTURE, BY REGION 2019-2027 (MILLION)TABLE 06.GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019-2027(MILLION)TABLE 07.AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET REVENUE FOR ENTRY, BY REGION 2019-2027 (MILLION)TABLE 08.AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKETREVENUE FOR COMMERICLA VEHICLES, BY REGION 2019-2027 (MILLION)TABLE 09.AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKETREVENUE FOR PREMIUM, BY REGION 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 10.AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKETREVENUE FOR LUXURY, BY REGION 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 11.NORTH AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 12.NORTH AMERICAN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 13.U.S. AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 14.U.S. AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 15.CANADA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 16.CANADA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 17.MEXICO AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 18.MEXICO AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 19.EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 20.EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 21.UK AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 22.UK AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 23.GERMANY AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 24.GERMANY AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 25.FRANCE AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 26.FRANCE AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 27.SPAIN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 28.SPAIN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 29.REST OF EUROPE AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 30.REST OF EUROPE AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 31.ASIA-PACIFIC AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 32.ASIA-PACIFIC AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 33.CHINA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 34.CHINA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 35.JAPAN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 36.JAPAN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 37.INDIA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 38.INDIA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 39.AUSTRALIA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 40.AUSTRALIA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 41.REST OF ASIA-PACIFIC AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 42.REST OF ASIA-PACIFIC AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 43.LAMEA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 44.LAMEA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 45.LATIN AMERICA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 46.LATIN AMERICA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 47.MIDDLE EAST AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 48.MIDDLE EAST AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 49.AFRICA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 50.AFRICA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (MILLION)TABLE 51.BORGWARNER INC.: COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 52.BORGWARNER INC. : PRODUCT PORTFOLIOTABLE 53.BORGWARNER INC.: KEY STRATEGIC MOVES AND DEVELOPMENTTABLE 54.ROBERT Bosch GMBH: COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 55.ROBERT Bosch GMBH: OPERATING SEGMENTSTABLE 56.ROBERT Bosch GMBH: KEY STRATEGIC MOVES AND DEVELOPMENTTABLE 57.CONTINENTAL AG: COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 58.CONTINENTAL AG: OPERATING SEGMENTSTABLE 59.CONTINENTAL AG: KEY STRATEGIC MOVES AND DEVELOPMENTSTABLE 60.DANA LIMITED: COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 61.DANA LIMITED: OPERATING SEGMENTSTABLE 62.DANA LIMITED: KEY STRATEGIC MOVES AND DEVELOPMENTTABLE 63.DELPHI TECHNOLOGIES: COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 64.DELPHI TECHNOLOGIES: OPERATING SEGMENTSTABLE 65.DELPHI TECHNOLOGIES: KEY STRATEGIC MOVES AND DEVELOPMENTTABLE 66.GKN: COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 67.GKN: OPERATING SEGMENTSTABLE 68.GKN: PRODUCT PORTFOLIOTABLE 69.LEAR CORPORATION: COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 70.LEAR CORPORATION: OPERATING SEGMENTSTABLE 71.LEAR CORPORATION: PRODUCT PORTFOLIOTABLE 72.MAGNA INTERNATIONAL INC.: COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 73.MAGNA INTERNATIONAL INC.: OPERATING SEGMENTSTABLE 74.MAGNA INTERNATIONAL INC.: PRODUCT PORTFOLIOTABLE 75.MAGNA INTERNATIONAL INC.: KEY STRATEGIC MOVES AND DEVELOPMENTTABLE 76.MAHLE POWERTRAIN LTD.: COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 77.MAHLE POWERTRAIN LTD.: OPERATING SEGMENTSTABLE 78.MAHLE POWERTRAIN LTD.: KEY STRATEGIC MOVES AND DEVELOPMENTTABLE 79.VALEO : COMPANY SNAPSHOTTABLE 80.VALEO: PRODUCT PORTFOLIOTABLE 81.VALEO: KEY STRATEGIC MOVES AND DEVELOPMENT
FIGURE 01.KEY MARKET SEGMENTSFIGURE 02.EXECUTIVE SUMMARYFIGURE 03.EXECUTIVE SUMMARYFIGURE 04.TOP IMPACTING FACTORSFIGURE 05.TOP INVESTMENT SFIGURE 06.TOP WINNING STRATEGIES, BY YEAR, 2016–2020FIGURE 07.TOP WINNING STRATEGIES, BY STRATEGY, 2016–2020FIGURE 08.TOP WINNING STRATEGIES, BY COMPANY, 2016–2020FIGURE 09.MODERATE-TO-HIGH BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERSFIGURE 10.MODERATE-TO-HIGH THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTSFIGURE 11.MODERATE THREAT OF SUBSTITUTESFIGURE 12.HIGH-TO-MODERATE INTENSITY OF RIVALRYFIGURE 13.HIGH-TO-MODERATE BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERSFIGURE 14.KEY PLAYER POSITIONING (2019)FIGURE 15.GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET SHARE, BY ARCHITECTURE, 2019–2027 (%)FIGURE 16.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET FOR BELT DRIVEN (P0) ARCHITECTURE, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 17.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET FOR CRANKSHAFT MOUNTED (P1) ARCHITECTURE, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 18.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET FOR DUAL-CLUTCH TRANSMISSION-MOUNTED /ON INPUT SHAFT OF TRANSMISSION(P2 OR P3) ARCHITECTURE, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 19.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET FOR TRANSMISSION OUTPUT SHAFT/ REAR AXLE (P4) ARCHITECTURE, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 20.GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKETSHARE, BY VEHICLE CLASS, 2019–2027 (%)FIGURE 21.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET FOR ENTRY, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 22.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKETFOR MIDS, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 23.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKETFOR PREMIUM, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 24.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKETFOR LUXURY, BY COUNTRY, 2019-2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 25.AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY REGION, 2019-2027 (%)FIGURE 26.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2019–2027 (%)FIGURE 27.U.S. AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 28.CANADA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 29.MEXICO AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 30.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2019–2027 (%)FIGURE 31.UK AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 32.GERMANY AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 33.FRANCE AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 34.SPAIN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 35.REST OF EUROPE AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 36.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2019–2027 (%)FIGURE 37.CHINA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 38.JAPAN AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 39.INDIA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 40.AUSTRALIA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 41.REST OF ASIA-PACIFIC AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 42.COMPARATIVE SHARE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2019–2027 (%)FIGURE 43.LATIN AMERICA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 44.MIDDLE EAST AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 45.AFRICA AUTOMOTIVE 48V SYSTEM MARKET, 2019–2027 (MILLION)FIGURE 46.BORGWARNER INC.: REVENUE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 47.BORGWARNER INC.: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 48.BORGWARNER INC.: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)FIGURE 49.ROBERT Bosch GMBH: NET SALE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 50.ROBERT Bosch GMBH: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 51.ROBERT Bosch GMBH: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)FIGURE 52.CONTINENTAL AG: REVENUE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 53.CONTINENTAL AG: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 54.CONTINENTAL AG: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)FIGURE 55.DANA LIMITED: REVENUE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 56.DANA LIMITED: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 57.DANA LIMITED: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)FIGURE 58.DELPHI TECHNOLOGIES: REVENUE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 59.DELPHI TECHNOLOGIES: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 60.DELPHI TECHNOLOGIES: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)FIGURE 61.GKN: REVENUE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 62.GKN: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 63.GKN: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)FIGURE 64.LEAR CORPORATION: REVENUE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 65.LEAR CORPORATION: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 66.LEAR CORPORATION: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)FIGURE 67.MAGNA INTERNATIONAL INC.: REVENUE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 68.MAGNA INTERNATIONAL INC.: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 69.MAGNA INTERNATIONAL INC.: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)FIGURE 70.MAHLE GMBH: REVENUE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 71.MAHLE GMBH: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 72.MAHLE GMBH: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)FIGURE 73.VALEO : REVENUE, 2017–2019 (MILLION)FIGURE 74.VALEO: REVENUE SHARE BY SEGMENT, 2019 (%)FIGURE 75.VALEO: REVENUE SHARE BY REGION, 2019 (%)
v Li-ion Starter Battery 20ah Oem A0009829320 A0009829420 Mercedes S-class S580 W223 2021-22
Description: 48v Li-ion Starter Battery 20ah Oem A0009829320 A0009829420 Mercedes S-class S580 W223 2021-22
Model: 22 MERCEDES S-CLASS VIN of Donor Vehicle: W1K6G7GB2NA107628 Mileage: 1709 Stock Number: 220808 ID No: 0000227655 Location: INV W (0)
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Engine Cooling Radiator Fan Clutch Motor OEM Mercedes S580 W223 2022
- 0.00. 100.00
- 100.00. 249.00
- 249.00. 500.00
- 500.00. 750.00
- 750.00. 1,000.00
- 1,000.00. 2,000.00
- 2,000.00. 5,000.00
- 5,000.00. 10,000.00
- 10,000.00. 20,000.00
- 20,000.00. 75,000.00
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The 48-volt vehicle electrical system: the way to the mild hybrid at Mercedes-Benz
In addition to the first particle filter for petrol engines (from 2017), further developments are on the road map for the classic drives at Mercedes-Benz. Because even with all the euphoria about the future, the internal combustion engine and the compression-ignition engine are still alive. It is still these engines that move us every day. For some applications and customer requests there are still no alternatives and as long as this is the case, the further development of these units is on the agenda.
This can be the 48-Volt electrical system
Raising the on-board voltage from 12 to 48 volts means lowering the currents that flow to obtain the same power. This can be used to reduce the cross-section of lines, for example, which in turn leads to fuel savings through less weight. But. that’s not the biggest advantage of the system.
Recuperation, boost and start stop with 48 volts
The fourfold voltage enables efficient start-stop systems, which in the case of the six-cylinder in-line engines and in connection with an automatic transmission at Mercedes-Benz will lead to the use of an integrated starter-generator. This electric motor works in a similar way to the electric motor of the plug-in hybrid variants, but without the need for the high-voltage system, as its power consumption is limited. The integrated or belt-driven starter generator is also a very durable solution for start-stop systems.
Integrated starter generator
An integrated starter generator can have a supportive effect both when accelerating and when recuperation is more efficient. In combination with the 48-volt on-board network and a 48-volt battery, efficiency and driving comfort increase. An integrated starter generator also serves as a starter and yet acts much more sensitively than this. Start-stop systems will then no longer be perceived as troublemakers, but will be praised for the increase in efficiency while maintaining comfort. The integrated starter generator will only be considered for high-priced variants. For the vehicles in the smaller classes. for example the A-Class with a four-cylinder engine. the belt-driven starter generator is in the planning.
Belt-driven starter generator
The cheaper solution is a replacement for today’s alternator. Also acts both as a “dynamo” and as an electric motor. The use of 48-volt technology makes this system more efficient than previously possible. The installation instead of a classic alternator, which does not contribute to the start-stop system and does not have a boost function, is not significantly more complex. The conversion of existing systems to a 48-volt RSG is therefore a manageable task in terms of costs.
48 volts will also electrify the “classics”.
Everyone understood that there was no way around e-mobility. And even if we will continue to live and drive with bridging technologies (PHEV) or classic drives for a certain amount of time. the leap in development to the 48-volt vehicle electrical system will at least lead to the electrification of classic drive systems. Elsewhere, such hybrids were called: mild hybrids. at Mercedes-Benz one speaks of the electrification of the drive train. Both are right. and that’s a good thing!
Read even more about E-strategy at Mercedes-Benz:
- Part 1. The fuel cell SUV
- Part 2. The 48-volt technology for classic drives (from June 17.6)
- Part 3. The electric car platform from Mercedes-Benz (from June 24.6th)
- Part 4. B2B e-mobility in the city (from 1.7.)
- Part 5- The new Smart Electric Drive (from 8.7.)
What makes a car a mild hybrid, and what does 48V stand for?
A mild hybrid refers to a vehicle with an internal combustion engine that is also supported by a small electric drive. The electric motor recovers braking energy (recuperation) and makes it available later as additional drive power to reduce overall fuel consumption. In contrast to a full hybrid or an electric car, a mild hybrid can be driven in purely electric mode only to a limited extent.
There are also some mild hybrids operating on 12V. In most cases, therefore, a more powerful 48V machine is used, which recuperates more energy and thus also reduces fuel consumption to a greater extent. Experts, therefore, often use the terms mild hybrid and 48V interchangeably.
Why do we need mild hybrids at all?
This technology offers many benefits for drivers and manufacturers. at low implementation costs.
The most important factor is climate protection, though: e-mobility is emerging, primarily due to the unequivocal political commitment in core markets such as Europe and China. However, this transformation cannot be accelerated at will after all, technology, battery availability, infrastructure, and power generation must be further developed simultaneously.
According to the Bloomberg Electric Vehicle Outlook 2021, over one billion more cars with internal combustion engines (ICE) are expected to be built by 2040 alone. This is partly due to the much slower shift to e-mobility in regions such as Africa, Latin America and India.
These future ICE cars would cause up to another 27 billion tons of CO2 emissions. about 10% of the global CO2 residual budget to meet the 1.5-degree target.
These vehicles must be designed to be as efficient as possible to minimize global climate change. Mild hybridization can prevent 15%-25% of these emissions. Neglecting this technology would mean losing this savings potential forever.
Equipping all one billion combustion vehicles to be produced by 2040 with 48V hybridization would save at least two billion metric tons of CO2 – around three times Germany’s total greenhouse gas emissions in 2020. With more complex topologies, savings of 4 billion metric tons and more are possible through 48V hybridization.
What are the benefits for the driver?
Upgrading from a conventional combustion engine to a 48V mild hybrid earns the driver a significant increase in the performance range. For example, with a 48V Boost Recuperation Machine braking energy is recovered while driving with up to 15 kW / 20hp to then support the engine with up to 12 kW/ 16 HP when power requirements increase (boost). It can also eliminate the turbo lag at low engine speeds.
The vehicle can start particularly smoothly and quietly thanks to the 48V engine, and high-consumption comfort. Coasting. i.e. driving with the engine switched off at high speeds. becomes possible and can save additional fuel.
Thanks to significantly reduced consumption, mild hybrids are a better solution not just for the environment, but also for the driver’s budget: Over a lifetime of 150,000 km, for example, the 48V Boost Recuperation Machine saves over 1,500 liters of fuel compared with a conventional combustion engine. This translates into around 4 tons less CO2 emissions and at least € 2,000 less spent at the gas station.
An electric car is not an option for everyone today. Reasons for this could be a lot of long-distance driving or the lack of a sufficient local charging infrastructure. In this case, 48V hybrids are a practical solution that minimizes the climate burden and makes driving yet more comfortable and safe.
How does mechanical integration in the powertrain work?
Mild hybrid technology can be integrated into all existing powertrain architectures for internal combustion engines. Depending on the desired level of performance and CO2 savings, the effort ranges from very low to medium.
Mild hybridization always requires installing an e-machine with an inverter in the powertrain in addition to the combustion engine. On top of that, a small 48V battery (~0.5. 1kWh) is added to feed the 48V on-board electrical system. Lastly, a DC/DC converter supplies the 12V on-board electrical system. On the other hand, the lower voltage makes complex and therefore expensive high-voltage protection requirements and cable harnesses unnecessary.
The required e-machine can be flexibly installed in the powertrain – on the belt, in the transmission environment, or on the rear axle. The CO2 savings, e-driving capabilities, the integration effort, and the associated system costs all depend on where the 48V machine’s position in the powertrain. This placement is also called topology, with the installation positions being abbreviated as P0 to P4.
P0: belt integration
is the most basic solution for mild hybridization. For this, a 48V machine such as the BRM simply replaces the generator in its existing integration space on the belt. Modification of the powertrain architecture is minimal – and so are implementation efforts and system costs. Nevertheless, the recuperation of this starter generator can already reduce fuel consumption by up to 15% in real-world operation compared to a conventional combustion engine.
P1: between the combustion engine and the transmission
However, this is rarely used in practice, as implementation here is more complex and costly than with P0, without leveraging further savings potential to a great extent.
P2 / P3: transmission setting
P2 indicates an integration directly on the side of the main transmission or connected via a belt, P3 describes the position directly behind it on the drive shaft. Both topologies feature a comparable cost/benefit ratio. However, they are mechanically much more complex than P0. For example, the e-motor needs to be installed in the transmission not as a whole but as individual components, and air cooling is not possible. In addition, a starter motor is usually still needed in this setup, which also drives up costs.
In return, higher savings of up to 22% can be realized due to lower frictional losses in the engine. Slow, purely electric driving (creep/crawl mode), e.g. when parking or during stop-and-go in traffic jams, is technically possible as well.
P4: rear axle
Integration of one or two 48V machines on the rear axle via a differential gear. Frictional losses in the powertrain are lowest here, allowing for the highest savings (up to 25%). In addition, this topology offers the most comprehensive e-driving functions. Besides the creep/crawl mode, a (temporary) all-wheel drive could be enabled in conjunction with the combustion engine. This solution represents the most extensive modification of the powertrain and entails the highest system costs. In this case, an additional starter or starter-generator is also still necessary.
On the other hand, with the appropriate transmission ratio and power of the e-motor, P4 topology can also be used to drive 48V full hybrids or even compact 48V electric vehicles. without the safety architecture otherwise required for high-voltage.
What is the benefit of the 48V on-board electrical system? Does it replace the 12V on-board electrical system?
The number of electrical consumers in cars today is much higher than it used to be. Safety and comfort features such as active wheel suspension or windshield heaters are just as energy-hungry as high-performance pumps or turbochargers.
Due to the four times higher voltage level, a 48V machine can recuperate and significantly more kinetic energy. It then reliably supplies high-performance consumers and enables additional driving functions such as comfort start, boost and coasting. At the same time, 48V is a low enough to be non-hazardous to humans. In contrast to high-voltage systems, the 48V on-board electrical system therefore has no special safety requirements.
A 48V mild hybrid actually has two electrical systems. The conventional 12V system continues to supply all low-voltage consumers, such as the radio, headlights, or window regulators. Not switching these components to a different voltage level results in less complexity associated with system integration. A DC/DC converter connects the two electrical systems – the recuperated braking energy can therefore also supply the 12V electrical system.
Comparison of technologies: What is the difference between a mild hybrid, full hybrid, plug-in hybrid and an electric car?
All these drive concepts have an e-motor on board. but they differ especially in terms of primary energy source, voltage level, and electric driving functions.
With mild hybrids, the main drive is the combustion engine. The e-machine primarily serves to improve efficiency: Braking energy is recovered, stored in a small 48V battery (~0.5. 1 kWh), and used for additional torque and to supply the on-board electrical system. This saves 15-25% of fuel consumption, depending on the topology. Purely electric driving is not possible at all or only with severe restrictions.
The full hybrid is based on the same principle. Energy is only supplied to the system externally via fuel, while the e-motor recuperates kinetic energy during braking and makes it available again later. The difference: Full hybrids usually operate on a high-voltage basis and have a larger battery. Security requirements and system costs are therefore significantly higher. On the plus side, even more energy can be recovered and stored, and short distances can be driven purely with the e-motor.
A plug-in hybrid has two full-fledged drives – an internal combustion engine and a high-voltage electric motor. This double motorization and the larger battery (often around 10kWh) add costs and weight. In return, purely electric driving is usually possible for around 40-60 km, and the combustion engine is theoretically only necessary for cross-country travel. The battery is charged via a socket, such as the household mains.
The battery-powered electric vehicle (BEV) does not need an internal combustion engine at all. It does, however, require significantly larger batteries – around 20kWh of battery capacity per 100km, depending on the model. Here, too, charging takes place via the home power socket – or at the growing network of public charging stations
There is currently no single best choice for every consumer – the differences are too significant in terms of personal needs (e.g., pure city car vs. professional driver) and regional requirements (especially with regard to the charging infrastructure and the share of renewable energy in the electricity mix). In the long term, the transformation of individual mobility is clearly moving toward BEVs; however, mild hybrid vehicles in particular can still prevent a lot of unnecessary CO2 emissions on this journey.