13 Best Python Frameworks for Building Small to Enterprise Applications. Batteries…

Best Python Frameworks for Building Small to Enterprise Applications

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Python is both a fun toy and a frightening flamethrower. The same goes for what you can do with Python.

Python is loved by hobbyists, scientists, and architects alike.

It’s damn easy to get started with, has higher-order abstractions and metaprogramming capabilities to build large and complex systems, and has truckloads of libraries for doing pretty much anything. Sure, there are limitations when it comes to concurrency and strong typing, but you can work around them.

In this article, we’ll cast a look at some of the best Python frameworks when it comes to building web applications large and small.

Django

The Django framework has withstood the test of time the go-to web framework for the Python community. If you assaulted a Python developer in their sleep and forced them to build a web application at gunpoint, they’d automatically reach for Django the way a Rubyist will reach for Rails.

And there’s a good reason for that. Django is, as the tagline says, “a web framework for perfectionists with deadlines.” It’s what is called a “batteries included” framework (much like how Python is a batteries-included language), which provides all common functionality out of the box.

With these features baked in, Django massively cuts down on development time:

  • A handy and pleasant ORM, with migrations created and applied automatically by the framework.
  • Scaffolding for automatic generation of admin panel based on your models.
  • Support for cookies, sessions, middleware, templates, etc.
  • Security features like XSS prevention, CRSF prevention, etc., are applied automatically.
  • Works with practically all databases out there (it’s easy to find adapters where official support doesn’t exist)
  • First-class support for Geographical data and spatial queries though GeoDjango

And much, much more. Suffice it is to say Django is a full-blown, friendly web framework.

Is Django for you?

Django makes excellent sense for all use cases, whether Rapid prototyping or planning an enterprise application. The only rough edge you’ll come across is the framework’s structure.

Since Django bends over backward to make development fast and easy for you, it imposes its structure (a concept called “convention over configuration”) on the developer, which you may not agree with.

For instance, if you want to replace the Django ORM with something else (say, SQL Alchemy), be prepared for surprises.

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Flask

While Django takes up almost all the mindshare in Python web development, Flask is a strong contender.

As opposed to Django, Flask is a “micro-framework,” which means it focuses on getting a few bare minimum things right and leaves the rest to you. This “the rest is up to you” can be source of frustration or delight, depending on what your goals are.

For those that know what they’re doing and want to lovingly craft their web applications by choosing components of their choice, Flask is a godsend.

Flask offers the following features:

  • Routing, templating, session management, and other useful features.
  • Full support for unit-testing
  • A minimal, pluggable architecture
  • First-class REST support
  • Support for Blueprints, Flask’s unique take on architecture for tiny web applications
  • Choose your packages for ORM, migrations, etc.
  • Flexible application structure — put your files where they make the most sense to you
  • Static file serving
  • WGSI compliant

Is Flask for you?

As already said, Flask is a minimal web framework, with everything broken up into individual components that you can swap out. If you’re in a hurry to build a prototype, you’ll spend a lot of time making trivial decisions on the database, folder structure, routing, etc., that can prove counter-productive. Flask works best when you’re on to a stable, serious project of medium- to large-scale, especially REST APIs.

Bottle

If you thought Flask’s approach wasn’t minimal enough and that you’d still like more control, say hello to Bottle.

Bottle strips out even more, to the point where the only dependency is the Python standard library. This means no pip install this or pip install that, though you’d most likely need to before long. Here’s why Bottle stands out for some people:

  • Single-file deployment. Yes, your entire application lives in a single “.py” file.
  • No external dependencies. If you have the right Python version installed, you’re good to go.
  • Supplies its templating engine, which can be swapped out with Jinja2, Mako, or Cheetah.
  • Support for forms, headers, cookies, and file uploads.
  • Built-in web server, which can be easily replaced.

Is Bottle for you?

If you’re making a really small app (say, less than 500 lines of code) with no special requirements, Bottle might make a lot of sense to you. It’s a complete no-nonsense approach to creating web apps, but in practice, you’ll find you’re more hindered than helped by Bottle.

The reason is that the real world is always changing and before you know it. New requirements will be dropped on your head. At that point, putting everything in a single file would become a chore.

Also, if you think Bottle and Flask are almost alike, you’re right. Proposals of merging the two date back to 2012, and even Armin, the creator of Flask, agrees with that. However, Marcel, the creator of Bottle, maintains a strict ideological distinction because of the single-file approach and insists that the two remain separate.

Zope

Zope is complicated to explain, but I’ll attempt. Yes, it’s a web framework that can be used to build applications large or small, but that’s not all. Zope is more of a platform that consists of tools (web frameworks included) created under the Zope philosophy and maintained by the Zope Corporation.

Zope has several interesting components and features suitable for enterprise application development:

  • A component registering and discovery architecture to configure a large app.
  • ZODB — (the only) object database for Python for storing objects natively.
  • Full-fledged framework and standards for Content Management Systems
  • A set of web application frameworks — the canonical one is still called Zope, although several new frameworks (like Grok) have been built on top of it.
  • Strong standards for software development, release, and maintenance.

Is Zope for you?

If you’re after a highly structured environment for building really large apps, Zope is good. That said, you’ll run into your fair share of issues as well. While Zope continues to evolve, the community is really small, to the extent that many Python developers haven’t even heard of it.

Finding tutorials and extensive documentation is hard, so be prepared to do a lot of digging around (though the community is really helpful!). Also, the Python developers you come across may not want to learn Zope and “dilute” their skill-set.

TurboGears

TurboGears is a highly flexible framework that has a genuinely composable architecture. It’s a framework that scales as per your needs, and you can use it to build a single-file application or a multi-tenancy behemoth.

TurboGears has some elegant features, some of which are either not present in popular frameworks (like Django) or are hard to build:

  • First-class support for multiple databases
  • Multi-database transactions
  • Highly modular — start with a single file and scale out as much as you need
  • A powerful ORM (SQLAlchemy, which is more mature and capable than Django’s ORM)
  • Pluggable architecture based on the WSGI specification
  • Built-in support for database sharding
  • A function-driven interface as opposed to deep, rigid object-oriented hierarchies.

Is TurboGears for you?

If you want to develop happily and want a tested, mature, and robust framework away from the media noise of “awesome, next-gen” and all that, TurboGears is a great fit. It’s highly respected in the community and has complete, extensive documentation.

Sure, TurboGears isn’t opinionated, which means initial setup and configuration time can be more, but it’s the ideal framework for enterprise application development.

Web2py

Web2py started as a hobby project and was released in 2007. Its goals are to make web development easy and accessible to everyone.

As a result, Web2py takes the zero-dependency approach to the extreme — it has no requirements, nothing to install, and includes a full-featured Web-based editor for development, database management, as well as deployment.

You can almost think of it as Android Studio, which is more of a complete environment than just a framework. Some nice features that Web2py has, are:

  • Virtually no learning curve.
  • Minimal core (only 12 objects), which can even be memorized!
  • Pure-Python templating
  • Protection against XSS, CSRF, and other attacks
  • A pleasant and consistent API

Is Web2py for you?

Web2py is a stable and fun framework, but it’s hard to recommend it against other options like Django, Flask, etc. There are hardly any jobs, and the unit testing story is not great. That said, you might enjoy the code API and the overall experience the framework offers, especially if you’re building REST APIs.

CherryPy

CherryPy is another microframework that aims to provide basic framework functionality and quickly get out of the way.

While it’s comparable to other microframeworks like Flask, CherryPy boasts of some distinction:

  • It contains a built-in multi-threaded server (something that remains on the wishlist of Flask)
  • The (single) web server can host multiple applications!
  • Serve your application as a WSGI app (to interface with other WSGI apps) or a plain HTTP server (which performs better)
  • First-class support for profiling and unit-testing
  • Runs on PyPy (for the true performance junkies), Jython, and even Android

CherryPy does all this, and then the usual you’d expect from a web framework.

Is CherryPy for you?

If you’re building RESTful services mostly, CherryPy is a much more serious contender than Flask. It’s a decade-old framework that has matured nicely and is suitable for small and large applications alike.

Sanic

The rise of Node and its asynchronous programming model left many communities feeling behind, Python’s included. In response, a flurry of async web frameworks have appeared on the radar, Sanic being one of them.

Sanic is heavily inspired by Flask, to the extent that it borrowed the route decorators, Blueprints, and other fundamentals hook line and sinker. And they’re not ashamed to admit it. What Sanic brings to the table, if you’re a Flask fan, is true non-blocking I/O to meet the performance levels of a Node application. In other words, Sanic is Flask with async / await support!

When compared to CherryPy, Sanic has an incredible performance advantage (just think of how it would fare against Flask!). Check out the following results tested by DataWeave:

As you can see, once the concurrency numbers start exceeding 50 per second, CherryPy practically chokes and throws up a high failure rate.

Is Sanic for you?

While the performance characteristics of Sanic blow everything else out of the water, it may not be the best choice for your next project. The main reason is the lack of asynchronous libraries.

The bulk of existing Python tools and libraries were written for the single-threaded CPython version, with no forethought for high concurrency or asynchronous operations. If, for example, your favorite ORM does not support asynchronous operations, the whole point of using Sanic gets defeated.

Because of these maturity and availability reasons, we won’t examine any more async frameworks in Python.

Masonite

I came across this framework a while ago and thought it was a step in the right direction. Since then, version 2.0 has been released, and I feel like the time has finally come to give Masonite some love.

Simply put, Masonite is the Python version of Laravel (a famous PHP framework, in case you didn’t know). Why does that matter? It matters because Laravel was built on the principles of Ruby on Rails, and together these two frameworks allow non-Ruby devs to experience the “Rails Way” of doing things.

Laravel (and to an extent, Rails) developers will feel right at home and would be up and running in literally no time. When I tried Masonite (and I did submit an issue or two, including a bug!), I was able to build REST APIs with exactly zero thinking because my Laravel muscle memory was doing everything.

As a batteries-included, full-stack framework, Masonite brings several interesting things to the table:

  • Active-record style ORM
  • Database migrations (which, unlike Django, need to be created by the developer)
  • A powerful IoC Container for dependency injection
  • Own CLI (called “craft”) for scaffolding and running tasks
  • First-class support for unit testing

The biggest “rival” for Masonite is Django, as the community is doing its best to market the framework as easy, delightful, and the next big thing. Whether it will surpass Django is something time will tell (if you ask me, it does have a decent shot), but for a discussion comparing the two, see here.

Is Masonite for you?

Masonite is still a baby when compared to Django, so there’s no way it can be recommended over Django. That said, if you’re into the Rails way (or the Laravel way) of doing things, you’d appreciate what Masonite has to offer. It’s ideal for rapidly building prototypes that need everything pre-configured and easy to switch.

Falcon

Falcon is a Python web framework designed for large-scale microservices.

The library has a complete system with templates, complimentary packages, and add-ons that you can use in your project. The Falcon is an awesome starting point to get all the resources you need.

The project also has a strong community where users discuss the design and development of this framework.

Falcon offers the following features;

  • Debuggable: You can easily debug a Falcon app as it tells you which inputs lead to which outputs. Luckily, all the unhandled exceptions on Falcon are never encapsulated or masked.
  • Flexible: Falcon gives you control over implementation details, allowing you to customize the app as you see fit. The minimalist approach makes it easier to debug and tune your app as you see fit.
  • Fast: Falcon has been proven to turn around requests faster than other frameworks. This framework works perfectly with PyPy.
  • ASGI and WSGI support: You can use Falcon irrespective of whether you are a fan of Asynchronous Server Gateway Interface (ASGI) or Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI). WGSI is synchronous, meaning it handles requests one after the other (sequentially). ASGI is asynchronous, where requests are processed simultaneously.

Is Falcon right for you?

Falcon is a good choice when you are building microservices and mission-critical REST APIs. The fact that this framework is designed to be fast makes it an excellent choice for apps processing multiple transactions at-a-go.

Pyramid

Pyramid is presented as “The Start Small, Finish Big, Stay Finished Framework”. If you are a learner, you will find Pyramid easy to get started.

The framework allows you to choose the approach to use for security, templating, database, and so much more. You can even start with a scaffold.

Pyramid offers the following features;

  • Scalability: The fact that you can start small does not mean your application will remain like that forever. Pyramid has an add-on, extension, and configuration system to help you scale your app.
  • Authentication and authorization: You can protect your app from unauthorized access through its built-in authorization and authentication features.
  • Extensible: Pyramid is designed as a full package for the entire app’s lifecycle. The platform is committed to API stability to ensure you always have APIs you can trust.
  • Highly customizable: You can customize or override the core code without forking. This approach allows you to create apps that suit your needs.

Is Pyramid for you?

You should use Pyramid when building content-driven and large-scale web applications. The modular and flexible architecture makes it easy to scale your apps. Pyramid offers easy integration with databases and has built-in support for flexible routing, making it a perfect choice for content sites such as news platforms and blogs.

Tornado

On top of being a Python framework, Tornado is an asynchronous networking library. Unlike most Python frameworks that are based on WSGI, Tornado runs with only one thread per process.

You can still get support for WSGI through tornado.wsgi. However, most developments are based on the tornado.web. Tornado’s own interface.

Tornado offers the following features;

  • Non-blocking network I/O: This library is built on top of the asyncio library. This enables it to handle thousands of connections at a go without much overhead.
  • Security and authentication: Tornado has security features such as cross-site request forgery protection, HTTPS, and cookies. The same library has inbuilt authentication support.
  • Scalability: You can increase capacity or add more servers as the need arises while using Tornado.
  • WebSocket support: There is real-time communication between the server and the client through the built-in WebSocket implementation.

Is Tornado for you?

Tornado will be a perfect option if you want to build high-performance web services. This Python framework is highly scalable and its non-blocking I/O feature makes it a perfect fit if you are building a service that will handle a big volume of simultaneous connections.

Tornado is also suitable for applications handling a lot of I/O operations like processing large files or fetching data from external APIs.

CubicWeb

CubicWeb is a semantic web application framework that allows developers to build applications following object-oriented design principles.

The framework has a set of libraries and tools that developers can use to build powerful applications.

CubicWeb is packed with the following features;

best, python, frameworks, building, small, enterprise
  • Reusable components: You can save development time by reusing components across your app.
  • Uses a query language: CubicWeb uses RQL, a query language in the background.
  • Compatible with multiple databases: Take advantage of CubicWeb’s compatibility with Mercurial, LDAP directories, and SQL databases.
  • Customizable: CubicWeb is flexible and customizable, allowing you to control how your app works.

Is CubicWeb right for you?

CubicWeb is a good choice if you want to build apps that require flexible querying and data modeling capabilities. You can thus build social networking, knowledge management, and scientific data management applications using CubicWeb.

Conclusion

There’s no shortage of Python frameworks out there, large and small. While you can pick up pretty much anything for a small project, an enterprise application has demands that not many of these frameworks can fulfill. If you ask me, for enterprise development, Django (to an extent), Zope, and TurboGears are what come to mind. And even among those, I’m inclined towards TurboGears.

That said, any architect worth his salt can pick up a microframework and roll out their architecture. And this is pretty much what happens in practice, which explains the success of Flask and similar ideas.

If you are a newbie, then this online course would be helpful for learning Python.

Next, explore some of the specialized Python frameworks to build APIs.

Express JS vs Django: A Comprehensive Comparison of Two Leading Web Frameworks

Choosing the right web framework is crucial for building robust and efficient web applications. With Express JS and Django being among the top choices in the market, it’s essential to understand their features, strengths, and weaknesses.

In this article, we’ll delve into the intricacies of Express JS vs Django, exploring their respective development philosophies, language choices, REST API development capabilities, database integration options, testing and debugging tools, deployment strategies, real-world use cases, and more.

By the end of this comparison, you’ll have a solid understanding of both frameworks, enabling you to choose the one that aligns best with your project requirements and development preferences.

So, let’s dive into the world of Express JS and Django, unraveling their unique features and shedding light on how they can empower you to build outstanding web applications.

Understanding Express JS

Express JS is a popular and powerful web framework for Node.js, designed to simplify the process of building web apps and APIs. It follows a minimalist approach, providing a robust set of features while keeping the core framework lightweight and flexible.

One of the key strengths of Express JS lies in its simplicity and ease of use. It offers a straightforward and intuitive API that allows you to quickly set up routes, handle requests and responses, and manage middleware functions. This simplicity makes Express JS an excellent choice for both beginners and experienced developers.

Express JS promotes a modular approach, enabling you to choose and integrate additional middleware as needed. This flexibility empowers you to customize and extend the functionality of your applications easily. With a vast collection of community-developed middleware available, Express JS provides a rich ecosystem of tools and extensions to enhance app development.

Another notable feature of Express JS is its support for template engines, allowing you to generate dynamic HTML pages effortlessly. Whether it’s using popular template engines like EJS, Handlebars, or Pug, or creating custom templates, Express JS provides the necessary mechanisms for rendering dynamic content.

over, Express JS embraces the asynchronous nature of Node.js, allowing you to handle requests efficiently without blocking the event loop. This non-blocking architecture ensures high scalability and responsiveness, making Express JS well-suited for applications that require real-time updates or handle a large number of concurrent requests.

Understanding Django

Django is a powerful and versatile web framework written in Python. It follows the “batteries included” philosophy, providing you with a comprehensive set of tools and functionalities out of the box. Django’s main goal is to enable you to build complex web applications rapidly, with an emphasis on clean, reusable, and maintainable code.

One of the key features of Django is its adherence to the MVC architectural pattern, which is often referred to as the Model-View-Template (MVT) pattern in Django. This pattern promotes a clear separation of concerns, allowing you to define models for data persistence, views for handling business logic, and templates for rendering the user interface. This architectural approach enhances code organization and makes Django applications easier to understand and maintain.

Django also incorporates a robust ORM system, which provides an abstraction layer for interacting with databases. This ORM simplifies database operations by allowing you to work with database entities using Python objects and methods, eliminating the need for writing raw SQL queries. The ORM supports multiple database backends, giving you the flexibility to choose the most suitable database.

Additionally, Django includes a powerful administrative interface, known as the Django Admin, which is automatically generated based on the defined models. The Django Admin provides a user-friendly interface for managing data, performing CRUD operations, and handling administrative tasks.

Furthermore, Django emphasizes the concept of reusability through its modular design. You can create reusable components called Django apps, which encapsulate specific functionality and can be easily integrated into different projects.

Express JS vs Django

Here’s a table summarizing the key differences between Express JS and Django:

Aspect Express JS Django
Language
Development Philosophy Minimalist and flexible, encourages customization
REST API Development Strong support for building APIs and data-driven applications
Database Integration Strong ORM system, seamless integration with databases
Testing and Debugging Robust testing framework, utilities for simulating HTTP requests
Deployment Options Can be deployed on various platforms and web servers
Performance Excels in handling heavy workloads and complex DB interactions
Scalability Supports horizontal scalability, caching mechanisms
Security Provides many built-in security features
Popularity Popular and has a stable, mature community
Job Opportunities Numerous opportunities with a vibrant ecosystem Steady demand, substantial job openings and projects
Ecosystem and Community Active community support, extensive package repositories
Use Cases

In the following sections, we will dive into each aspect in more detail.

Language

The choice of programming language is an essential consideration when selecting a web framework. Express JS and Django differ in the programming languages they are built upon, which can impact the development experience and ecosystem surrounding each framework.

Express JS is built on Node.js, a popular runtime environment for executing JavaScript code on the server side. JavaScript, a dynamic and versatile language, serves as the foundation for Express JS development.

Leveraging JavaScript allows you to build full-stack applications using a single language, simplifying the development process and promoting code reuse between the client-side and server-side components.

JavaScript’s asynchronous nature aligns well with Node.js and Express JS, enabling efficient handling of concurrent requests and real-time interactions.

On the other hand, Django is built on Python, a high-level and expressive programming language known for its readability and clean syntax. Python’s FOCUS on readability makes Django code more accessible and easier to understand for developers of various experience levels.

Python’s vast ecosystem and extensive standard library provide you with a wide range of tools and packages that can be leveraged to enhance Django applications.

Additionally, Python’s strong emphasis on code readability and maintainability contributes to the long-term sustainability of Django projects.

If you have a preference for JavaScript and want to leverage its capabilities for full-stack development, Express JS may be the preferred choice. Conversely, if you value Python’s readability and extensive ecosystem, Django can provide a solid foundation for building robust web applications.

Development Philosophy and Approach

Express JS and Django, despite being web frameworks used to achieve similar goals, differ in their development philosophies and approaches.

Express JS follows a minimalist philosophy, emphasizing simplicity, flexibility, and a “do-it-yourself” approach. It provides a lightweight core framework that focuses on routing and middleware capabilities, allowing you to have fine-grained control over the application’s behavior.

Express JS encourages you to choose and integrate additional libraries and middleware as needed, enabling customization and modularity. This philosophy grants you the freedom to structure your application and select the tools that best fit your project requirements.

On the other hand, Django follows a “batteries included” philosophy, emphasizing a comprehensive and opinionated approach to web development. Django provides a full-featured framework that includes many built-in functionalities and follows best practices by default. This approach aims to streamline development by reducing the need for external libraries and making common tasks easier to implement.

Django’s opinionated nature enforces a specific project structure and workflow, promoting consistency and maintainability across projects. It offers a standardized way of handling common web development tasks, such as URL routing, form handling, database integration, authentication, and user management.

In short, while Express JS offers you more flexibility and freedom to choose the components you want to use, Django’s opinionated approach provides a more structured and standardized development experience.

REST API Development

Express JS offers a lightweight and flexible framework that simplifies the process of building RESTful APIs. Its minimalistic design, combined with the modular approach, makes it easy to define routes, handle HTTP requests, and process data.

Express JS ecosystem provides a range of third-party middleware and plugins specifically designed for building APIs, enabling you to handle authentication, input validation, request parsing, and response formatting with ease.

By leveraging JavaScript’s asynchronous nature and utilizing libraries like Axios or Fetch, Express JS can seamlessly interact with external APIs, making it an excellent choice for building API-driven applications.

Django, on the other hand, provides a comprehensive set of tools and features for developing REST APIs through its Django REST Framework (DRF). DRF is a powerful extension to Django that simplifies API development by providing a high-level abstraction layer and ready-to-use components.

With DRF, you can define serializers to convert data between Python objects and JSON/XML formats, create API views using class-based or function-based approaches, handle authentication and permissions, implement pagination and filtering, and generate interactive API documentation automatically.

Django’s integration with the ORM further streamlines database interactions in API development.

In summary, Express JS provides a lightweight and flexible approach suitable for simpler APIs, while Django with DRF offers a more opinionated and feature-rich environment for building complex and highly customizable APIs.

Database Integration

Express JS offers flexibility in choosing the database of your choice, thanks to its support for multiple database drivers and ORMs. Whether you prefer relational databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, or SQL Server, or NoSQL databases like MongoDB or Redis, Express JS ecosystem provides drivers and libraries to interact with these systems.

You can leverage popular ORMs like Sequelize or TypeORM to define models, perform database queries, and manage data relationships. This flexibility enables you to choose the most suitable database technology.

Django, renowned for its built-in ORM, offers seamless integration with relational databases, particularly with PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, and Oracle. Django’s ORM abstracts away the complexities of SQL queries, allowing developers to interact with the database using Python objects and methods.

The ORM provides an intuitive and efficient way to perform CRUD operations, define database relationships, and handle migrations. Django’s ORM also offers advanced features like query optimization, caching, and support for database transactions, making database interactions more efficient and scalable.

To sum up, Express JS’s flexibility allows you to work with a wide range of databases and ORMs, while Django’s built-in ORM simplifies database interactions, especially with relational databases.

Testing and Debugging

Express JS offers a range of testing frameworks and libraries that facilitate unit testing, integration testing, and end-to-end testing.

Popular testing frameworks like Mocha, Jest, and Jasmine can be easily integrated with Express JS to write and execute test cases. These frameworks provide assertion libraries, test runners, and mocking capabilities to simulate various scenarios and validate the behavior of your application.

Additionally, Express JS supports middleware for logging and error handling, enabling you to identify and diagnose issues during the development and testing phases.

Django, with its robust testing framework, simplifies the process of writing and executing tests for your web applications.

Django’s testing framework provides a collection of testing utilities and assertions that help you create test cases for models, views, forms, and API endpoints. It supports unit testing, integration testing, and even provides tools for simulating HTTP requests.

Django’s testing framework promotes a TDD approach, encouraging you to write tests before implementing features, thereby ensuring the correctness and reliability of the application from the outset.

In addition to testing, both frameworks offer debugging tools to identify and resolve issues during development.

Express JS supports various debugging middleware and tools like Node Inspector, which allow you to inspect variables, set breakpoints, and step through code for debugging purposes.

Django provides a built-in debugging page called the Django Debug Toolbar, which provides detailed information about the request/response cycle, SQL queries, and cache usage, helping you identify performance bottlenecks and potential issues.

Deployment Options

Express JS, being a Node.js-based framework, provides flexibility in terms of deployment options. It can be deployed on traditional web servers like Apache or Nginx using tools like PM2 or Forever, which manage the Node.js process and ensure its availability.

Additionally, Express JS applications can be deployed on popular Cloud platforms like AWS, Google Cloud Platform, or Microsoft Azure, using services like AWS Elastic Beanstalk, Google App Engine, or Azure App Service. These Cloud platforms provide scalability, automatic load balancing, and other features that simplify the deployment and management of Express JS applications.

Django, built on Python, offers multiple deployment options suitable for different scenarios.

One popular deployment option is using traditional web servers like Apache or Nginx with a WSGI server such as Gunicorn or uWSGI. This setup allows Django applications to handle multiple concurrent requests efficiently.

Another option is deploying Django applications on platform-as-a-service (PaaS) providers like Heroku or PythonAnywhere, which provide a streamlined deployment process and manage infrastructure details.

Additionally, Django can be deployed on containerization platforms like Docker, allowing for easy deployment and scalability across different environments.

Both Express JS and Django can be deployed using serverless architectures, which eliminate the need to manage and provision servers. Serverless platforms like AWS Lambda, Google Cloud Functions, or Azure Functions allow you to deploy your applications as individual functions that automatically scale based on demand.

Performance

Let’s delve into their performance metrics and determine which framework offers a faster execution.

Express JS, with its minimal and lightweight design, imposes minimal overhead on the Node.js runtime. It efficiently handles a large number of concurrent requests using the asynchronous and event-driven programming model of Node.js. In a simple benchmark test, Express JS showcased its impressive performance by handling 11,202 requests per second.

On the other hand, Django, known for its comprehensive feature set and robustness, effortlessly handles complex and dynamic web applications. It leverages the synchronous and multi-threaded programming model of Python to deliver reliable performance. In a benchmark test, Django demonstrated its capability by handling 4,996 requests per second.

Based on these benchmark results, Express JS exhibits a higher request-per-second throughput compared to Django. The asynchronous and event-driven nature of Express JS, combined with its lightweight design, allows it to handle a larger number of concurrent requests efficiently.

However, it’s crucial to note that performance can vary depending on various factors such as the complexity of the application, database interactions, caching mechanisms, and server resources.

Scalability

Express JS offers scalability options that leverage the power of Node.js and its event-driven, non-blocking architecture. By utilizing clustering techniques, you can create multiple worker processes that can handle concurrent requests.

Load balancing tools, such as Nginx or HAProxy, can be used to distribute incoming requests across these worker processes, effectively scaling the application horizontally.

Additionally, Express JS can be deployed on Cloud platforms like AWS, Google Cloud, or Microsoft Azure, allowing for automatic scalability features such as load balancing and auto-scaling groups. These Cloud platforms provide the infrastructure and tools to scale applications based on demand, ensuring that the application can handle high traffic efficiently.

Django, with its robust architecture, also offers scalability options to handle increasing loads. Horizontal scalability can be achieved by deploying multiple instances of Django applications behind a load balancer. By using a shared database or distributed caching systems like Redis or Memcached, Django applications can maintain consistency across instances.

Additionally, Django provides support for caching mechanisms to reduce the load on the database and improve response times. By configuring a caching backend, such as Redis or in-memory caching, you can cache frequently accessed data and speed up the application.

Furthermore, Django can be combined with containerization technologies like Docker and orchestrated with tools like Kubernetes to facilitate easy deployment and scaling across different environments.

Both Express JS and Django offer horizontal scalability options, allowing applications to handle increased loads by distributing the workload across multiple instances.

Ultimately, Express JS and Django provide scalability options that enable applications to handle increased traffic and growing user bases.

Security

Express JS ecosystem provides a solid foundation for building secure web applications. It offers middleware that can be used to implement various security measures.

For example, middleware like helmet can be used to set HTTP headers to enhance security, prevent XSS attacks, and protect against clickjacking. Express JS also supports session management and provides mechanisms for securely storing session data, preventing session hijacking, and implementing user authentication and authorization.

By using encryption libraries like bcrypt or argon2. Express JS can securely hash and store passwords. Additionally, Express JS allows you to sanitize user input and implement secure data validation to protect against common vulnerabilities such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting.

Django, known for its emphasis on security, incorporates numerous security features and best practices. It includes a built-in authentication system that handles user authentication and session management securely.

Django’s ORM provides protection against SQL injection attacks by automatically sanitizing user inputs. It also enforces protection against XSS attacks by escaping user-generated content by default.

Django’s CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) protection prevents unauthorized requests from malicious websites. over, Django supports secure password hashing using algorithms like PBKDF2 or bcrypt. It also encourages the use of HTTPS by providing utilities to manage SSL certificates and enforce secure connections.

Both frameworks offer protection against common security vulnerabilities through continuous updates and security patches. However, with Express JS, you need to choose and configure the best libraries for your needs, while Django provides a lot of built-in security features.

Popularity

Express JS is widely recognized as a popular and active framework with a thriving community of developers and users.

BuiltWith’s study places Express JS as the 10th most popular framework among the Top 10k sites. SimilarTech reports that Express JS powers around 277,494 websites worldwide, with 54,055 exclusively in the US. According to Statistics Data, Express JS ranks 4th among the top five backend frameworks for 2022.

Django, on the other hand, is a mature and stable framework with a loyal and supportive community of developers and users.

SimilarTech reports that Django powers approximately 83,751 websites worldwide, with 14,702 exclusively in the US. According to Statistics Data, Django holds the 2nd position among the top five backend frameworks for 2022.

These popularity indicators reflect the widespread adoption and trust placed in both frameworks. Developers gravitate towards Express JS for its popularity and the vibrant ecosystem surrounding it. Django, on the other hand, attracts developers with its stability, maturity, and dedicated support of its community.

Job Opportunities

Express JS, being a popular and active framework, presents a high demand for developers in the field of web development. Numerous job openings and projects seek professionals with Express JS skills and knowledge.

Talent.com reports that the average annual salary for Express JS developers in the US is around 150,000.

Similarly, Django, known for its maturity and stability, maintains a steady demand for developers in the web development industry. Job opportunities requiring Django expertise are prevalent, with a substantial number of job openings and projects available.

ZipRecruiter reveals that the average annual salary for Django developers in the US is around 121,496.

Express JS, with its popularity and active community, offers numerous opportunities for developers seeking to work with this framework. Django, being a mature framework, also presents a steady demand for professionals experienced in its development.

Ecosystem and Community Support

Ecosystem

Express JS is an integral part of the Node.js ecosystem, allowing it to harness the extensive collection of modules and packages available on npm, the world’s largest package registry.

Express JS seamlessly integrates with other popular frameworks and libraries within the Node.js ecosystem, including React, Angular, MongoDB, Socket.io, and more.

On the other hand, Django thrives within the Python ecosystem, leveraging the wealth of libraries and tools accessible through PyPI, the Python Package Index.

Django integrates well with other renowned frameworks and libraries in the Python ecosystem, such as Flask, SQLAlchemy, Celery, Pandas, and others.

Community Support

Express JS boasts a sizable and active community of developers who actively contribute to its growth and maintenance. The framework enjoys over 60.8k stars and 10.5k forks on GitHub.

Additionally, the express tag on Stack Overflow features over 93k questions, indicating robust support for you.

Similarly, Django benefits from a large and dedicated community of developers who contribute to its advancement. With over 70.6k stars and 29.2k forks on GitHub, Django attracts considerable attention.

The django tag on Stack Overflow encompasses over 306k questions, highlighting the availability of community-driven assistance.

Documentation

Both Express JS and Django offer well-written and comprehensive documentation that covers all aspects of the frameworks.

Express JS documentation provides detailed guidance on installation, routing, middleware, error handling, testing, and more. It includes examples and tutorials suitable for beginners and advanced users.

Similarly, Django documentation covers essential areas such as installation, models, views, templates, forms, authentication, admin interface, and much more. It also offers examples and tutorials catering to various skill levels.

We can see that both Express JS and Django enjoy strong backing and thrive within their respective ecosystems.

Use Cases and Real-World Examples

Express JS and Django have been successfully employed in various real-world scenarios, showcasing their versatility and ability to address different use cases. Let’s explore some of the common use cases and real-world examples where these frameworks have excelled.

Use Cases for Express JS

  • Server-side Rendering (SSR): Express JS, coupled with client-side JavaScript frameworks like React, Angular, or Vue.js, is an excellent choice for building SPAs. Express JS can handle server-side rendering, API integrations, and routing, providing a seamless experience for users.
  • RESTful APIs: Express JS is widely used for developing RESTful APIs due to its simplicity, lightweight nature, and middleware ecosystem. It enables you to define routes, handle HTTP requests, and integrate with databases and other services efficiently.
  • Real-time Applications: Express JS, in combination with libraries like Socket.io, enables the development of real-time applications, such as chat applications, collaborative tools, and live dashboards. Its event-driven architecture and support for WebSockets facilitate bidirectional communication between clients and servers.
  • Microservices: Express JS is often employed in microservice architectures, where individual components of an application are built and deployed as separate services. Its lightweight nature and flexibility make it suitable for developing and maintaining microservices that can work together to create complex systems.

Real-World Examples of Express JS

  • Lite: Lite is a mobile web app that provides a fast and data-efficient experience for users with limited connectivity or low-end devices. Lite uses Express JS as the backend framework to handle requests, routing, caching, and compression.
  • Uber: Uber uses Express JS to build its base web server, Bedrock, which provides security, internationalization, and other integrations for its infrastructure.
  • AccuWeather: AccuWeather is a weather forecasting service that provides accurate and reliable information for millions of locations worldwide. AccuWeather uses Express JS to build APIs for integration into other apps.
  • IMDB: IMDB uses Express JS to create APIs for developers to integrate into their apps.
  • Prisma: Prisma is an open-source ORM that simplifies database access and management for Node.js and TypeScript applications. Prisma uses Express JS to create RESTful APIs for CRUD operations on various databases.

Use Cases for Django

  • Content Management Systems (CMS): Django’s robustness, built-in admin interface, and content management capabilities make it an ideal choice for developing CMS applications. Django’s ORM simplifies database interactions, and its templating engine enables efficient content rendering.
  • E-commerce Platforms: Django provides all the essential components for building e-commerce platforms, including user authentication, product catalog management, shopping cart functionality, and secure payment gateway integration. Its scalability and security features make it a preferred choice for e-commerce applications.
  • Data-Driven Applications: Django’s powerful ORM and data modeling capabilities make it suitable for developing data-driven applications. It facilitates seamless integration with databases and enables developers to efficiently manage, query, and manipulate data.
  • Social Media Platforms: Django’s authentication system, user management features, and support for complex data relationships make it well-suited for developing social media platforms. Its versatility allows for the implementation of various social features like user profiles, friend connections, activity feeds, and notifications.

Real-World Examples of Django

  • Instagram: Instagram is built entirely using Python and its Django framework.
  • Spotify: Spotify uses Django for its data analysis and backend services.
  • Netflix: Netflix uses Django for its data management and security features.
  • PayPal: PayPal uses Django for its internal tools and fraud detection systems.
  • Mozilla: Mozilla uses Django for its web development platform, which powers many of its websites and applications.

These use cases and real-world examples demonstrate the flexibility and effectiveness of Express JS and Django in powering various web applications.

Choosing the Right Framework

When it comes to selecting a web framework for your project, making the right choice is crucial. Both Express JS and Django offer distinct advantages and cater to different development needs. Here are some factors to consider when choosing the framework that best aligns with your requirements:

  • Project Complexity: Evaluate the complexity of your project. Express JS, with its minimalist approach, is suitable for small to medium-sized projects where flexibility and simplicity are key. On the other hand, Django’s batteries-included philosophy makes it a strong contender for complex projects that require a comprehensive set of features and functionalities.
  • Language Preference: Consider your familiarity with programming languages. Express JS relies on JavaScript, which has gained significant popularity among developers, particularly in the front-end realm. If you have a strong background in JavaScript or prefer a full-stack JavaScript approach, Express JS might be a natural choice. Conversely, if you have a preference for Python or are already experienced in the language, Django can leverage your existing skills.
  • Development Speed: Assess the speed at which you need to deliver your project. Express JS, known for its lightweight and flexible nature, allows for Rapid development and prototyping. It embraces a “get started quickly” philosophy, making it suitable for projects with tight deadlines or where agility is paramount. Django, with its comprehensive feature set and built-in components, promotes efficient development once you are familiar with its conventions and patterns.
  • Community and Ecosystem: Consider the size and vibrancy of the community surrounding each framework. A robust community means a wealth of resources, tutorials, and plugins readily available for support and extension. Express JS benefits from a large and active Node.js community, while Django enjoys the support of the Python community. Assess the documentation, online forums, and developer communities associated with each framework to gauge the level of support you can expect.
  • Scalability and Performance: Evaluate the scalability and performance requirements of your project. Express JS, with its lightweight nature and FOCUS on performance, is often chosen for applications that require high concurrency or real-time communication. Django, with its emphasis on stability and robustness, excels in handling heavy workloads and complex database interactions. Consider the specific scalability and performance demands of your project and choose accordingly.
  • Existing Infrastructure and Integration: Take into account any existing infrastructure or third-party systems that need to be integrated with your application. If you are already using Node.js or have other JavaScript-based components in your stack, Express JS may seamlessly fit into your ecosystem. Django, with its compatibility with various databases, authentication systems, and services, offers a wide range of integration possibilities.
  • Long-Term Support and Maintenance: Assess the long-term support and maintenance requirements of your project. Both Express JS and Django have established track records and are backed by strong communities. Consider the frequency of updates, stability, and backward compatibility of each framework to ensure long-term sustainability and ease of maintenance.

Conclusion

Choosing the right web framework is a critical decision that can greatly impact the success of your web development project. In this comprehensive comparison between Express JS and Django, we have explored the key aspects of each framework.

Express JS, with its minimalist and flexible approach, appeals to developers who prioritize simplicity and agility. It is particularly well-suited for smaller to medium-sized projects, single-page applications, RESTful APIs, and real-time applications. Its strong ecosystem built around Node.js, active community support, and extensive package repositories make it a popular choice among JavaScript developers.

Django, on the other hand, embraces a batteries-included philosophy, providing a comprehensive set of features and a structured approach to web development. It excels in handling complex projects, content management systems, e-commerce platforms, and data-driven applications. With its robustness, scalability, and security features, Django has gained significant traction in the Python community and is backed by a vibrant and supportive ecosystem.

When choosing the right framework, it is important to consider factors such as project complexity, language preference, development speed, community and ecosystem support, scalability and performance requirements, existing infrastructure, and long-term maintenance considerations. By carefully evaluating these factors, you can make an informed decision that aligns with your project goals and developer expertise.

You might want to check out other comparisons between:

Hyper vs Rocket. Low Level vs Batteries included

In this post we’re going to be comparing two popular Rust libraries used for building web applications. We’ll be writing an example in each and compare their ergonomics and how they perform.

The first library Hyper is a low level HTTP library which contains the primitives for building server applications. The second library Rocket comes with more batteries included and provides a more declarative approach to building web applications.

The Demo

We’re going to build a simple site to showcase how each libraries implements:

Routing

Routing decides what to respond for a given URL. Some paths are fixed, in our example we will have a fixed route / which returns Hello World. Some paths are dynamic and can have parameters. In the example we will have /hello/name which will response Hello name which will have name substituted in each response.

Shared state

We want to have a central state for the application.

In this demo we will have central site visitor counter which counts the number of requests. This number can be viewed as JSON on the /counter.json route. In this example we will be storing the counter in application memory. However if you were storing it in a database the shared state would be a database client.

The are lots of other functionality necessary for a site such as handling HTTP methods, receiving data, rendering templates and error handling. But for the scope of this post and example we will only be comparing these two features.

The rules

The rules for this demonstration is to only use the specific library and any of its re-exported dependencies. So no additional libraries (except in the Hyper example we need a tokio::main ).

Hyper

Hyper’s readme describes Hyper as a A fast and correct HTTP implementation for Rust with client and server APIs. For this demo we will be using the server side of the library. It has 9.7k stars on GitHub and 48M crates downloads. It is used as a often a dependency and many other libraries such as reqwest and tonic build on top of it.

In this example we see how far we can get with just using the library. This demo uses Hyper 0.14 1. Below is the full code for the site:

use Hyper::server::conn::AddrStream; use Hyper::service::make_service_fn, service_fn; use Hyper::Body, Request, Response, Server; use std::convert::Infallible; use std::sync::atomic::AtomicUsize, Arc; #[derive(Clone)] struct AppContext pub counter: ArcAtomicUsize, async fn handle(context: AppContext, req: RequestBody). ResultResponseBody, Infallible // Increment the visit count let new_count = context.counter.fetch_add(1, std::sync::atomic::Ordering::SeqCst); if req.method.as_str != GET return Ok(Response::builder.status(406).body(Body::empty).unwrap); let path = req.uri.path; let response = if path / Response::new(Body::from(Hello World)) else if path /counter.json let data = format!(, new_count); Response::builder.header(Content-Type, application/json).body(Body::from(data)).unwrap else if let Some(name) = path.strip_prefix(/hello/) Response::new(Body::from(format!(Hello, !, name))) else Response::builder.status(404).body(Body::empty).unwrap ; Ok(response) #[tokio::main] async fn main let context = AppContext counter: Arc::new(AtomicUsize::new(0)), ; let make_service = make_service_fn(move |_conn: AddrStream| let context = context.clone; let service = service_fn(move |req| handle(context.clone, req)); async move Ok::_, Infallible(service) ); let server = Server::bind(127.0.0.1:3000.parse.unwrap).serve(make_service).await; if let Err(e) = server eprintln!(server error:. e);

At the top we define a handle function which processes all the requests.

Routing is done through the chain of ifs and elses in the handle function. First the path of the request (e.g / for the index) is extracted using req.uri.path. Fixed routes are easy to branch on using string comparison like path /. For routes which match multiple paths such as the /hello/ route it uses str::strip_prefix which returns a None if the path doesn’t start with the prefix or Some if the path starts with the prefix along with a slice that proceeds the prefix.

/.strip_prefix(/hello/) None /test.strip_prefix(/hello/) None /hello/jack.strip_prefix(/hello/) Some(jack)

The function has a early return for requests with a method other than GET because there are no POST routes or others for this example. If the site accepted different requests types and had to add additional guards then we could additional clauses to the if statement. Although you could see how expand on the if chain would get more complex and verbose.

To return a response, Hyper re-exports Response (from the http crate). It has a nice simple builder pattern for building the responses. The serialization code is hand written using format! Of course we could import serde but that’s against the rules.

The counter is done by creating a struct in the initializing code and cloning it on every request to send to the handler function. Without going into the details it uses Arc instead of a usize as the atomic variant has special properties for when multiple handlers are using and mutating it. The code increments the visitor counter before anything else in the handler function so that a visit is recorded for all requests.

Hyper Verdict

In terms of development (on a low end machine we used for profiling 2 ), a debug build (without any of the build artifacts) takes 79.0s. After the initial compilation, incremental compilation takes only 1.9s. For building a release build with further optimizations (on top of the debug build artifacts) it takes 32.5s.

The initialization code was take from Hyper’s server docs and is quite verbose and out of the box for Hyper there are no logs or server information.

In terms of runtime performance over three 30 second connections Hyper responded to on average 74,563 requests per second on the index route on the above code. Which is incredible quick!

Rocket

Rocket is a web framework for Rust with a FOCUS on ease-of-use, expressibility, and speed. It has 17.4k github stars and 1.7M crates downloads. Rocket internally uses Hyper.

For this demo we are using the 0.5.0-rc2 version of Rocket 3 which builds on Rust stable.

use rocket:: fairing::Fairing, Info, Kind, get, launch, routes, serde::json::Json, Serialize, Config, Data, Request, State, ; use std::sync::atomic::AtomicUsize; #[derive(Serialize, Default)] #[serde(crate = rocket::serde)] struct AppContext pub counter: AtomicUsize, #[launch] fn rocket. _ let config = Config port: 3000.Config::debug_default ; rocket::custom(config).attach(CounterFairing).manage(AppContext::default).mount(/, routes![hello1, hello2, counter]) struct CounterFairing; #[rocket::async_trait] impl Fairing for CounterFairing fn info(self). Info Info name: Request Counter, kind: Kind::Request, async fn on_request(self, request: mut Request’_, _: mut Data’_) request.rocket.state::AppContext.unwrap.counter.fetch_add(1, std::sync::atomic::Ordering::SeqCst); #[get(/)] fn hello1. ‘static str Hello World #[get(/hello/)] fn hello2(name: str). String format!(Hello, !, name) #[get(/counter.json)] fn counter(state: StateAppContext). JsonAppContext Json(state.inner)

In Rocket we describe each endpoint using a function. The get macro attribute handles path routing and http method constraint. No need to add early returns for methods and dealing with raw string slices. It takes the declarative approach, #[get(/hello/)] is more descriptive and less verbose than if let Some(name) = path.strip_prefix(/hello/). The functions are registered using.mount(/, routes![hello1, hello2, counter]).

The application has a state defined here:

#[derive(Serialize, Default)] #[serde(crate = rocket::serde)] struct AppContext pub counter: AtomicUsize,

And it is created and registered using.manage(AppContext::default). Rocket re-exports the serialization library serde so we can use #[derive(Serialize)] to generate serialization logic for the counter state, so no hand writing the serialization code unlike first method.

In Rocket endpoint functions can just return String or str slices and Rocket handles it automatically. Rocket also comes with a Json return type and reusing the fact that AppContext implements Serialize we can freely build a Json response from it. The Json structure handles setting the Content-Type header automatically for us.

Rocket has a middleware implementation which it calls fairings. In the example it defines a CounterFairing which on every request modifies the counter state. The initialization code is really slim, it sets up a config and a Rocket structure is created using a builder pattern. Annotating the main function with #[launch] helps Rocket find the entry point and abstracts how the server is span up. Rocket also has really nice built in logs which are great for development.

Rocket Verdict

Since Rocket has more dependencies and requires more macro expansion it takes a bit longer build taking 141.9s (2m 21.9s) on a cold start to compile. A release builds on top of debug artefact takes 147.0s (2m 27.0s) to compile. Incremental builds are still fast taking 3.3s to compile after a small change to the response of a endpoint.

Using the same benchmark as Hyper, on average Rocket returned 43,899 requests per second in a release build with the logging disabled. roughly 60% of Hyper’s throughput.

Conclusion

Writing both of these examples were fun to build and there weren’t any frustrations or problems using them. Both are plenty fast for performance to be a concern.

Rockets documentation is very good and explanatory. All of Hyper’s api is well documented on its docs.rs page. Both libraries are actively developed with many commits and pull requests made in the last month.

Do you prefer the control and speed of Hyper or prefer the expressiveness of Rocket?

Shuttle: Stateful Serverless for Rust

Deploying and managing your Rust web apps can be an expensive, anxious and time consuming process.

If you want a batteries included and ops-free experience, try out Shuttle.

Footnotes

This blog post is powered by shuttle. The Rust-native, open source, Cloud development platform. If you have any questions, or want to provide feedback, join our Discord server!

Pros and Cons of Django as web framework for Python developers

Django describes itself as the web framework for perfectionists with deadlines. It was designed to help Python developers take applications from concept to completion as quickly as possible.

It allows quick development if you want to create a CRUD application with batteries included. With Django, you won’t have to reinvent the wheel. It just works and lets you FOCUS on your business logic and creating something users can use.

Strengthen your team with skilled Python developers. We cover the entire software development process, from business analysis and planning, through guiding you on machine learning solutions, to web application development. See how we can help you

Benefits of Django

Batteries included philosophy

The principle behind batteries-included means common functionality for building web applications comes with the framework, not as separate libraries.

Django includes dozens of functionality you can use to handle common web development tasks. Here are some high-level functionalities that Django provides you, which otherwise you have to stick together if you were to use a micro-framework instead:

  • ORM
  • Database migrations
  • User authentication
  • Admin panel
  • Forms

Standardized structure

Django as a framework suggests the correct structure of a project. That structure helps developers in figuring out how and where to implement any new feature.

With a widely accepted project structure that is similar to many projects, it is much easier to find online compatible solutions or ask the community for help. There are many passionate Python developers who will help you solve any issue you may encounter.

Django applications

Django applications (or apps for short) allow developers to divide a project into multiple applications. An app is anything that is installed by placing in settings.INSTALLED_APPS. This makes it easier for developers to add functionality to the web application by integrating external Django applications into the project.

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There are hundreds of reusable modules and apps to speed up your development. Check Django Packages website.

Secure by default

Django provides good security protection out of the box and includes prevention mechanisms for common attacks like SQL Injection (XSS) and Cross-site Request Forgery (CSRF). You can find more details in the official security overview guide.

REST framework for building APIs

Django REST Framework, typically abbreviated DRF, is a Python library for building APIs. It has a modular and customizable architecture that works well for both simple and sophisticated web APIs.

DRF provides a set of authentication and permission policies out of the box. It is a flexible, full-featured library with modular and customizable architecture. It comes with generic classes for CRUD operations and a built-in API browser for testing API endpoints.

GraphQL framework for building APIs

Large REST APIs often require a lot of requests to different endpoints to retrieve all required data. GraphQL it’s a query language that allows us to share related data in a much easier fashion. For an introduction to GraphQL and an overview of its concepts, please refer to the official GraphQL documentation.

Graphene-Django provides abstractions that make it easy to add GraphQL functionality to your Django project. Regular Django models, forms, authentication, permission policies and other functionalities can be reused to build GraphQL schema. It also provides a built-in API browser for testing API endpoints.

Disadvantages of Django

Django ORM

Django ORM, created before SQLAlchemy existed, is now much inferior to SQLAlchemy. It is based on the Active Record pattern which is worse than the Unit of Work pattern adopted by SQLAlchemy. This means, in Django, models can “save” themselves and transactions are off by default, they are an afterthought. Read more in Why I sort of dislike Django.

Django evolves slowly

Django is large and is considered monolithic piece of software. This allows the community to develop hundreds of reusable modules and apps but has also limited the speed of development of the Django. On top of that Django needs to maintain backward compatibility, so it evolves slowly.

Summary. Should I use Django as a Python developer?

While Django ORM is not as flexible as SQLAlchemy and the large ecosystem of reusable modules and apps slows down framework evolution. clearly Django should be the first choice web framework for Python developers.

Alternative, light frameworks, like Flask, while offering a retreat from Django large ecosystem and configurations, in the long term can require much more extra libraries and functionality, eventually making many experienced Python developers finding themselves wishing they’d started with Django instead.

Django project’s stability and community have grown tremendously over the past decade since the framework’s creation. Official documentation and tutorials are some of the best anywhere in software development. With each release, Django continues to add significant new functionality.

If you liked this article, you should check out 7 Common Mistakes That Django Developers Make.

Why We Use Django Framework What Is Django Used For

Julia Korsun

Choosing a web development framework is a big deal. There are quite a few frameworks on the market, each designed to address different project needs. For many companies and independent projects, the Django framework is an easy choice — it’s one of the most popular web development tools. But why is that? What is Django used for? What kind of projects? Let’s figure out what Django is and why so many developers around the world use it – and how you can do the same. Listen to “Why We Use Django Framework What Is Django Used For” on Spreaker.

So, What Is the Django Framework?

Django is an open-source framework for backend web applications based on Python — one of the top web development languages. Its main goals are simplicity, flexibility, reliability, and scalability. And when introduced to what is Django, Python and its features open up in a new way.

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Django has its own naming system for all functions and components (e.g., HTTP responses are called “views”). It also has an admin panel, which is deemed easier to work with than in Lavarel or Yii, and other technical Django features, including:

  • Simple syntax;
  • Its own web server;
  • MVC (Model-View-Controller) core architecture;
  • “Batteries included” (comes with all the essentials needed to solve solving common cases);
  • An ORM (Object Relational Mapper);
  • HTTP libraries;
  • Middleware support; and
  • A Python unit test framework.

Read more: Why use Python for web development Why We Use the Django Framework

best, python, frameworks, building, small, enterprise

Of course, the development toolkit is not limited to a combination of Python-Django: frameworks like Flask, Pyramid, FastAPI, or Tornado can provide a Python developer with different possibilities. In each particular case, this will mean different answers to why Django is better than Flask, or vice versa. But Django is one of the top-3 Python web frameworks due to its strengths.

It’s fast and simple

One of Django’s main goals is to simplify work for developers. To do that, the Django framework uses:

  • The principles of Rapid development, which means developers can do more than one iteration at a time without starting the whole schedule from scratch;
  • DRY philosophy — Don’t Repeat Yourself — which means developers can reuse existing code and FOCUS on the unique one.

As a result, it takes a lot less time to get the project to market. It’s secure

Security is also a high priority for Django. It has one of the best out-of-the-box security systems out there, and it helps developers avoid common security issues, including

Django promptly releases new security patches. It’s usually the first one to respond to vulnerabilities and alert other frameworks.

It suits any web application project

With Django, you can tackle projects of any size and capacity, whether it’s a simple website or a high-load web application. Why use Django for your project? Because:

  • It’s fully loaded with extras and scalable, so you can make applications that handle heavy traffic and large volumes of information;
  • It is cross-platform, meaning that your project can be based on Mac, Linux or PC;
  • It works with most major databases and allows using a database that is more suitable in a particular project, or even multiple databases at the same time.

It’s well-established

Django is very good for web development. It is time- and crowd-tested. It has a big, supportive community accessed through numerous forums, channels, and dedicated websites. It’s easy to find help when there’s a problematic function in the code, and to find developers if your company is looking to base the next project on Django.

What You Can Do with Django

Here’s an interesting fact: Django was first created to power a web application for a newspaper publisher, the Lawrence Journal-World. You can expect it to be amazing at handling projects with volumes of text content, media files, and heavy traffic — or anything else that works like a web-based periodical.

But the publishing industry is not the framework’s only area of application. Django is also used to build eCommerce websites and health care and financial applications for transportation and booking, social media sites, and more. Here are some of the many project types you can develop using the framework:

  • Financial platforms with features for analyzing and calculating approximate results based on personal data, risk tolerance, the probability of achieving goals;
  • Built-in custom CRM systems for internal data;
  • B2B CRM systems for handling communication between businesses;
  • Platforms that facilitate communication between two parties, such as a business and a consumer;
  • High-load booking engines or shopping platforms;
  • Android and iOS mobile apps that support web applications;
  • Real estate property evaluation systems;
  • Document management systems;
  • Platforms for handling legal issues like verifying mortgage conditions or lease status.

Some companies choose to base their projects on more than one framework. Django can also be used to create separate features, such as:

  • An emailing system for sending notifications to users;
  • A filtering system with advanced logic and dynamically changing rules;
  • Algorithm-based generators;
  • Data-analysis tools;
  • Interfaces for managing investment funds;
  • Admin dashboards;
  • Photo-based verification systems;
  • And other features that facilitate the development of CRM and B2B platforms, online marketplaces, booking systems, and more.

Your chance to enter the market faster

Well, you have finally learned how to use Django and in which areas its use is most appropriate. To make sure of this, it is worth considering popular companies (and their applications) that use the Django framework.

Famous Companies That Use the Django Framework

Django is the choice of many, and it’s also the choice of the Internet’s giants. Here are some of the popular web applications enjoy Django’s speed, flexibility, and ease of use:

  • Instagram: Another popular social network that deals with a great deal of media data and user interactions. Django enables the functionality that makes the web application work seamlessly, add new features, and fix issues in no time.
  • Spotify: A large media library with huge volume of information that allows users to listen to music free of charge or on an ad-free subscription basis. On the technical side of things, Spotify also uses machine learning, where Python is one of the best choices. The creators chose to combine it with the Django framework.
  • The Washington Post: It’s no wonder that The Washington Post would use Django to handle its heavy traffic, since the framework itself was created to power an online newspaper. Several other online periodicals also use Django.
  • Dropbox: A Cloud technology for file storage requires high-performance functionality. Django provides Dropbox with the tools it needs to provide sharing and synchronization, as well as scalability.
  • Mozilla: One of the most popular web browsers, and another web application that switched from PHP to Python, and thus to Django. Now, it is better able to handle huge traffic and API hits.
  • NASA: They use Django for some of the functional elements that require the most reliability. Their website is not as popular as Instagram, for example, yet it handles high-resolution imagery and an average of 2 million views per month.
  • : This platform has well over 250 million active users per month, handles huge volumes of media data, and yet manages to sustain its user-friendly interface. Thanks to its open-source framework, the creators were able to modify it to suit their needs.
  • Reddit: What’s the first site go to for social news and discussions? For many people, it’s Reddit — a web content platform where people ask questions, share opinions, and where posts are promoted based on a rating system. Reddit relies on Django for many of its functional capabilities, like servicing heavy user traffic.

Wrap-Up

Django is a great addition to projects that need to handle large volumes of content (e.g., media files), user interactions or heavy traffic, or deal with complex functions or technology (e.g., machine learning). Yet it is simple enough for smaller-scale projects, or if you intend to scale your project to a much higher level. That’s why Django is used by so many companies that vary in size and goals.

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Django is an open-source framework for backend web applications based on Python — one of the top web development languages. When should Django be used?

Here are some of the many project types you can develop using the Django framework:

  • Financial platforms with features for analyzing and calculating approximate results based on personal data, risk tolerance, the probability of achieving goals;
  • Built-in custom CRM systems for internal data;
  • B2B CRM systems for handling communication between businesses;
  • Platforms that facilitate communication between two parties, such as a business and a consumer;
  • High-load booking engines or shopping platforms;
  • Android and iOS mobile apps that support web applications;
  • Real estate property evaluation systems;
  • Document management systems;
  • Platforms for handling legal issues like verifying mortgage conditions or lease status.

Django can also be used to create separate features, such as:

  • An emailing system for sending notifications to users;
  • A filtering system with advanced logic and dynamically changing rules;
  • Algorithm-based generators;
  • Data-analysis tools;
  • Interfaces for managing investment funds;
  • Admin dashboards;
  • Photo-based verification systems;
  • And other features that facilitate the development of CRM and B2B platforms, online marketplaces, booking systems, and more.

Django is a fast and simple framework that helps to save development time and therefore increase the overall cost-effectiveness of the project. Also, Django has one of the best out-of-the-box security systems out there. It helps developers avoid common security issues that could otherwise incur additional costs later. Why should I use Django for my travel website?

Django is a great choice for projects that handle large volumes of content (e.g., media files), user interactions or heavy traffic, or deal with complex functions or technology (e.g., machine learning). Yet it is simple enough for smaller-scale projects, or if you intend to scale your project. That’s why Django is used by many companies that vary in size and goals in industries, including fintech and travel. How much faster is Django development, unlike other frameworks?

Frameworks like Flask, Pyramid, FastAPI, or Tornado can provide a Python developer with different possibilitieіs. In each particular case, this will mean different answers to why Django is better than Flask, or vice versa. The Django framework uses the principles of Rapid development and DRY philosophy (Don’t Repeat Yourself). As a result, it takes a lot less time to get the project to market. Is Django framework suitable for developing complex healthcare solutions?

The Django framework is used to build eCommerce websites, healthcare and financial applications, transportation and booking platforms, social media websites, and more. Since Django was first created to power a web app for a newspaper publisher, it is suitable for projects with volumes of text content, media files, and heavy traffic.

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